…Pause here for that finger dashing to the Google machine…….
“Devolution” is a widely used term that lacks a precise definition and is often used interchangeably with “decentralization.” Decentralization, however, entails explicit transfers of decision-making authority that are limited to specific programs or functions. Such transfers from a central or higher-level entity to subordinate field, regional, and/or local entities do not ordinarily give the subordinate entities rights of autonomous self-government. Decentralization also implies that the central or higher-level entity can unilaterally recentralize authority.
Devolution, which can be instituted constitutionally or legislatively, implies a transfer of substantial, or even complete, power and authority for a range of important governmental functions from a national or central government to subordinate regional governments (e.g., provinces or states) or local governments (e.g., municipalities or metropolitan entities) such that the regional or local governments are invested with substantial rights of autonomous self-government. A key power in devolution crucial for self-government is the authority of a regional or local government to (1) adopt and collect its own sources of revenue (e.g., levy sales, income, or property taxes), (2) set its own tax rules and rates, (3) borrow funds, and (4) expend its revenues for locally determined purposes.
That is out of the way….now let us take a look at the War of Devolution……
DEVOLUTION, WAR OF (1667–1668). The Franco-Spanish Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659) brought France modest territorial gains. The peace was sealed by a marriage in 1660 between the young Louis XIV (ruled 1643–1715) and the daughter of Philip IV, Marie-Thérèse (1638–1683). If both powers regarded the 1659 settlement as a welcome escape from twenty-five years of indecisive conflict, by the mid 1660s perceptions had hardened that France was the dominant military and political force in Europe, while the Spanish monarchy was locked into a spiral of instability, weakness, and diminishing resources. With Philip IV’s death in 1665 and the minority of the young and sickly Charles II (ruled 1665–1700), the temptation for Louis XIV to exploit his once-powerful rival became overwhelming. Though dynastic convention would grant the inheritance of the entire Spanish monarchy to the male heir of Philip IV, Louis’s jurists argued that local custom in parts of the Spanish Netherlands granted shares in an inheritance to the female heirs by a previous marriage. Because the Spanish had never paid Marie-Thérèse’s dowry, it was claimed that her renunciation of rights to the Spanish inheritance was void, and that the private law of the Netherlands could thus be applied to territory coveted by the French king. This legal sophistry proved sufficient to justify Louis’s aggressive designs, and in May 1667 three armies totaling 70,000 men poured across the frontiers of the Spanish Netherlands. Defensive capacity had been depleted since 1659 as many troops had been transferred back to the Iberian Peninsula to sustain the failing struggle against Portuguese independence. The French offensive was overwhelming: more major cities and fortresses fell to the French in a single campaign than in the previous twenty-five years of war.
I know that some of the younger visitors get their information visually for they just cannot grasp the concept of reading….so for those this short video explaining the War of Devolution…..
I Read, I Write, You Know
“lego ergo scribo”