A Mandate Of Heaven?

Interested in knowing what I mean?

Mandate of Heaven basically means there can only be one legitimate ruler and this ruler has the blessing of god….this idea started in China back during the Shang Dynasty 1046 BCE…..

That term popped to mind when I read something about the upcoming 2020 election…..

Donald Trump has made what he says are “jokes” claiming that he will not leave office at the end of his term on at least 27 separate occasions, according to one researcher’s count, sparking fears that he will refuse to step down even if he is defeated in the 2020 presidential election. On Saturday, the bestselling author of two investigative books about Trump outlined what he says is Trump’s “step-by-step” plan for holding on to the presidency, even if he loses in November.

According to Seth Abramson, the author of the New York Times bestselling book, Proof of Collusion: How Trump Betrayed America, Trump’s plan to remain in office despite an electoral defeat would not involve using the military or law enforcement to stage a “coup.”

Instead, Abramson wrote in a lengthy Twitter essay compiled by Thread Reader, the plot to reject the election results would unfold primarily through the media and the court system.

Author Claims Donald Trump Already Has ‘Step-By-Step’ Plan For Refusal To Leave Office If He Loses Election

Do I think that this will happen?

Probably not…..but that said Trump does think his shit don’t stink and I would not put some silliness like this from him if he loses in November.

What are the chances?

I Read, I Write, You Know

“lego ergo scribo”

More Plague History

I know that these times….days locked away in our separation……my thoughts are that while learning stuff about the way to be deal with this pandemic why not learn as well…..and history is always fascinating….that maybe just me.

I posted about the plagues of old and how they fit into the gravity of history………https://lobotero.com/2020/03/28/pandemics-in-history/

That post looked t the Middle Ages in Europe…..but they were not the only region to suffer……

Among the worst infections recorded is the plague which is fairly well documented in the West starting with the Plague of Justinian (541-542 CE) and continuing on through the Black Death (1347-1352 CE). Outbreaks of plague following the Black Death already had a body of literature to draw upon and so, in the West, are also well documented.

The same cannot be said for the plagues of the Near East which claimed millions of lives between 562-1486 CE throughout the regions now known as Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, Lebanon, Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt among others. The initial plague is thought to have been a continuation of Justinian’s Plague, although other theories as to origin have been suggested, and the epidemics which followed are considered either a resurgence of this plague or another strain brought to the region through trade or the return of troops from campaign. These outbreaks are sporadically mentioned in histories of the plague owing to a number of factors including:

https://www.ancient.eu/article/1532/plagues-of-the-near-east-562-1486-ce/

Another thought…….How did the Greeks handle the outbreaks of disease in days past……

ith the spread of the coronavirus, the world is becoming pointedly aware of the extent to which human beings are interconnected. The rapid spread of the virus has highlighted how much we are dependent upon one another, not just for basic biological needs, but also for our sense of belonging and even commerce.

There’s nothing novel about this level of interdependence.

As historians of early Christianity, we know that from the sixth century B.C., people in the ancient Greek city-state, or polis, were acutely conscious of this dependence. They dealt with disease spread as a result of living in close quarters.

http://theconversation.com/ancient-greeks-purged-city-states-of-disease-as-they-would-a-human-body-and-it-was-the-most-vulnerable-that-suffered-133670

In other words…..shelter in place or separation has been a good plan for at least 2500 years.

More on the responses in history to a pandemic (plague)……

Throughout history, epidemics and pandemics of plague and other diseases have caused widespread panic and social disorder even, in some instances, when the people of one region were aware of a pervasive infection elsewhere. In the case of the Plague of Justinian (541-542 CE and after), for example, the people of Constantinople were aware of plague in the Near East for at least two years before it arrived in the city but made no provision because they did not consider it their problem.

Once the disease struck, the people felt overwhelmed as it seems as though they believed that what had happened to others elsewhere could not possibly happen to them. Since there was no concept of germ theory, no one understood the cause of these outbreaks or how they spread and so they were attributed to supernatural causes and the wrath of the gods or God.

https://www.ancient.eu/article/1534/reactions-to-plague-in-the-ancient–medieval-world/

Be clam…..avoid crowds….wash hands often….stay prepared……

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I Read, I Write, You Know

“lego ergo scribo”

Women’s History #6–Margaret Sanger

My closing tribute to women for this month…..afterwards I return to the world of Covid-19…..

Margaret Sanger…….Another woman that does not get much play in our study of history unless you are inn a women’s studies class…..she was an important rights activist for women’s birth control rights…..

The consequences of sexual relations between women and men simply were not fair.

An old double standard dictated that men were rewarded for sexual prowess and women suffered a damaged reputation. Males were encouraged to “sow a few wild oats” while women were told “good girls don’t.”

Most of all, if a relationship resulted in pregnancy, it was the woman who was left with the responsibility. For decades, pioneers like Margaret Sanger fought for contraceptives that women would control. With the introduction of the birth control pill to the market in 1960, women could for the first time deter pregnancy by their own choice.

The fight for reproductive freedoms was intense. Organized religions such as the Roman Catholic Church stood firm on their principles that artificial contraceptives were sinful. Many states in the early 1960s prohibited the sale of contraceptives — even to married couples.

https://www.ushistory.org/us/57b.asp

More on Sanger’s life……

In the early 20th century, at a time when matters surrounding family planning or women’s healthcare were not spoken in public, Margaret Sanger founded the birth control movement and became an outspoken and life-long advocate for women’s reproductive rights. In her later life, Sanger spearheaded the effort that resulted in the modern birth control pill by 1960.

Born September 14, 1879, in Corning, New York, the sixth of eleven children born to Michael Hennessey Higgins, a stonemason, and Anna Purcell Higgins, a devoutly Roman Catholic Irishwoman. Sanger’s life course was shaped by the poverty of her childhood and the death of her mother at age 50, which Sanger understood resulted from the physical toll of eleven pregnancies. Sanger later became a nurse, attending Claverack College and Hudson River Institute in 1896 and completing the nursing program at White Plains Hospital in 1902. That year she married William Sanger, an architect, and moved to Hastings, New York, where the couple had three children

Sanger strongly believed that the ability to control family size was crucial to ending the cycle of women’s poverty. But it was illegal to distribute birth control information. Working as a visiting nurse, she frequented the homes of poor immigrants, often with large families and wives whose health was impaired by too many pregnancies, miscarriages, or in desperation botched abortions. Often, too, immigrant wives would ask her to tell them “the secret,” presuming that educated white women like Sanger knew how to limit family size. Sanger made it her mission to 1) provide women with birth control information and 2) repeal the federal Comstock Law, which prohibited the distribution of obscene materials through the mails, and regarded birth control information as such.

https://www.womenshistory.org/education-resources/biographies/margaret-sanger

Another woman that has been pushed aside in favor of BS history that features men over women……Margaret Sanger deserves better than to be forgotten by the masses when she did so much in their name.

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Class Dismissed!

I Read, I Write, You Know

“lego ergo scribo”

Women’s History #5–The Poetic Princess

A little more women’s history to help sooth the nerves in the time of sheltering in place…..

I first came across this woman when I was living in Spain…..she has a fascinating story……and since this is women’s history month what better time to introduce this poet to my readers?

Her name was Wallada bint al-Mastakfi…….

Wallada was born in 1001, the daughter of a noble in the Andalusian city of Córdoba. In 711 an army of Moors coming up from Africa had conquered the city for the Umayyad Caliphate, along with most of modern Spain. Córdoba became the capital of this province on the edge of their empire. Fifty years later, after the Umayyads had been deposed, a prince of their line named Abd al-Rahman fled to Córdoba. Several of the locals had taken advantage of the chaos to declare independence, and he conquered them and welded them together into the independent Emirate of Córdoba. By the time Wallada was born his descendents had declared themselves Caliphs, [1] and Córdoba was a city of half a million people – one of the most advanced cities in Europe.

Unfortunately for the Córdobans, however, by this time the Umayyads had definitely begun to lose their grip on their caliphate. In 976 a ten year old boy named Hisham had succeeded to the throne. In the grand tradition of child rulers throughout history, fierce competition immediately started over the regency (and thus effective control of the caliphate). The eventual winner in this was al-Mansur Ibn Abi Amir, a powerful leader whose victories against the Christian kingdoms clinging to the northern part of Spain earned him infamy as “Almanzor”. He died in 1002, with his son succeeding to the regency.

Wallada bint al-Mustakfi, Poetic Princess

More on her scandalous love affair with ibn Zaydun a prominent poet of Andalusia…..

Although ibn Zaydun was a leading figure in the courts of Cordoba and Seville, he was most famous among the people of his day because of his scandalous love affair with Princess Wallada. They did nothing to hide their passion, and at her literary circle, when the poets began improvising, as was their custom, they would allude to it quite openly. On one famous occasion, Wallada uttered this impromptu verse, as she gazed upon her lover’s face:

“I fear for you, my beloved so much, that even my own sight even the ground you tread even the hours that pass threaten to snatch you away from me. Even if I were able to conceal you within the pupils of my eyes and hide you there until the Day of Judgment my fear would still not be allayed.”

https://www.andalucia.com/history/people/ibn-wallada.htm

Fascinating love story…..

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“lego ergo scribo”

Tale Of The Three Apples

It is the weekend and the days are getting warmer so I will try to put the Covid behind me for at least a couple of days…..and try to be an FYI posts……

For a long time now we have been told that Edgar Allen Poe was the inventor of the detective story…….well that is not necessarily true.

Actually the first whodunit came from the Arabian Nights collection and its title is “The Tale of the Three Apples”

A breakdown for your convenience…..

This story is typically regarded as one of the original murder mystery/whodunit stories that are so popular today. It begins with the discovery of a body, then introduces a pair of suspects, and continues along a series of twists until the final culprit is revealed. The difference between this and a more typical whodunit, though, is that our detective character (Ja’far the vizier) does not actually succeed in solving any crime; he simply happens upon the answer when he discovers the apple in his daughter’s pocket.

The story makes great use of twists, which is today a commonly-used tactic for keeping readers engaged, interested, and alert. In both instances, just when Ja’far is about to be executed, some big reveal changes the course of the story. First, the two men show up and take the blame. Then, he discovers that his own slave is guilty. Plot twists are essential components to any story that has elements of detective fiction, and of most successful stories in general. One of the great virtues of this collection is that it employs so many elements of good storytelling in a time before any professional criticism was available. That implies that the standards of storytelling (often cited to Aristotle’s Poetics) developed before any criticism indicated their value.

https://www.gradesaver.com/the-arabian-nights-one-thousand-and-one-nights/study-guide/summary-the-three-apples

A fascinating read if one has the time….in case my more literary visitors then here is a place to read the story……

https://middleeast.library.cornell.edu/content/tale-three-apples

As a fact the entire collection known as “The Arabian Nights”……

https://manybooks.net/titles/langandretext94arabn11.html

I will adjourn to the garden for some wine, cheese and fruit……please all be well and safe……

“lego ergo scribo”

Empress Irene

While sheltering in place….why not learn something?

It is the weekend and I have been dealing (like everyone else) with the virus stuff that I think my readers need to know……but after all it is women’s history month so I will give some of women of history that are seldom mentioned…….this time it is Empress Irene.

Who?

She was the empress of the Byzantines ………

Known for: sole Byzantine emperor, 797 – 802; her rule gave the Pope the excuse to recognize Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor; convened the 7th Ecumenical Council (2nd Council of Nicaea), restoring icon veneration in the Byzantine Empire

Occupation: empress consort, regent and co-ruler with her son, ruler in her own right
Dates: lived about 752 – August 9, 803, ruled as co-regent 780 – 797, ruled in her own right 797 – October 31, 802
Also known as Empress Irene, Eirene (Greek)

Background, Family:

  • from a noble Athenian family
  • uncle: Constantine Sarantapechos
  • husband: Emperor Leo IV the Khazar (January 25, 750 – September 8, 780); married December 17, 769, son of Constantine V Copronymus who arranged the marriage and his first wife Irene of Khazaria. Part of the Isaurian (Syrian) dynasty ruling the Eastern Roman Empire.
  • one child: Constantine VI (January 14, 771 – about 797 or before 805), emperor 780 – 797

https://www.thoughtco.com/irene-of-athens-p2-3529666

We always hear about the strong men of this empire but seldom anything about the women…..and Irene is one that should be mentioned more…..

Empress Irene was the wife of Leo IV and, on her husband’s death, she reigned as regent for her son Constantine VI from 780 to 790 CE. From 797 to 802 CE she ruled as emperor in her own right, the first woman to do so in Byzantine history. During her lacklustre reign, Irene ruthlessly schemed and plotted to keep the throne she would lose and regain three times, but she is chiefly remembered for restoring the Christian veneration of icons, which her predecessors of the Isaurian dynasty had sought so vehemently to repress. Even this seemingly pious campaign was really only a means for Irene to defeat her enemies and keep power. The Empress’ gold coins reveal much of her duplicitous character for, uniquely, they carried a portrait of herself on both sides

https://www.ancient.eu/Empress_Irene/

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I Read, I Write, You Know

“lego ergo scribo”

Pandemics In History

It is the weekend and I thought that a short history of the pandemic through the ages might give some small perspective to my readers that are at home and protecting themselves.

These things seem to have been with us for a very long time….if so then maybe we cannot blame some conspiracy with the reason.

The History of Pandemics by Death Toll

The Plague….but today we call it a pandemic……who started this “reporting” on the results of these pandemics….

The word ‘plague’, in defining a lethal epidemic, was coined by the physician Galen (l. 130-210 CE) who lived through the Antonine Plague (165 – c. 180/190 CE) but the disease was recorded long before in relating the affliction of the Plague of Athens (429-426 BCE) which killed many of the city’s inhabitants, including the statesman Pericles (l. 495-429 BCE). Plagues certainly may have existed prior to the Athenian outbreak – and almost certainly did – but most studies of the epidemic begin with Athens as it is the first recorded by an eyewitness and survivor, the historian Thucydides (l. 460/455 – 399/398 BCE). Plagues are routinely named either for the person who reported them, the monarch at the time of the outbreak, the region afflicted, or by an epithet as in the case of the Black Death.

https://www.ancient.eu/article/1528/plague-in-the-ancient–medieval-world/

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If you are sheltering in place and are reading this blog….I think you and hopefully I have been of some small help.

I Read, I Write, You Know

“lego ergo scribo”