War Criminal Gets A Monument

My regulars know that I do like my history and try to pass on a little knowledge to my visitors.

This Covid-19 thing has made my historical posts dwindle down to a trickle unless it is something about pandemics through the ages.

I would like to rectify my oversight…..

My newest history lesson is about an Italian general in Ethiopia during World War 2 and his escape from the atrocities that he carried out……his name was Rodolfo Graziani……

The town of Affile in Italy’s Lazio region erected a mausoleum to Italian Army Marshal Rodolfo Graziani in August 2012. The event occurred 57 years after the controversial marshal’s death on January 11, 1955. As emcee of the elaborate memorial service, Mayor Ettore Viri was joined by a special delegate from the Vatican. Emblazoned with the words “Fatherland” and “Honor,” Graziani’s new tomb cost Italian taxpayers $160,000.

The event touched off an uproar because of Graziani’s role in war crimes in Ethiopia in the aftermath of the Second Italo-Ethiopian War of 1935-1937. As a result the Lazio parliamentary regime cancelled funding for the project in 2013 in the wake of a negative reaction at the polls in regional elections. The Lazio Regional Council’s legal action to remove Graziani’s name from his own monument reportedly is still pending.

In the postwar bloodlust by the Soviet Communist Party that occurred in April 1945, no real Italian war crimes trials ever emerged as they did at both Nuremberg and Tokyo. This was partly because almost all the captured top Fascists had been simply gunned down without any hearings. The elimination began with Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, identified as “Il Duce” to his followers as the leader of the National Fascist Party, on April 28, 1945, and continued downward.

Italian War Criminal Rodolfo Graziani

Too many war criminals escaped their just rewards for their cruelty….even some Nazis that were protected by the US…..Operation Paperclip……

Although he officially sanctioned the operation, President Harry Truman forbade the agency from recruiting any Nazi members or active Nazi supporters. Nevertheless, officials within the JIOA and Office of Strategic Services (OSS)—the forerunner to the CIA—bypassed this directive by eliminating or whitewashing incriminating evidence of possible war crimes from the scientists’ records, believing their intelligence to be crucial to the country’s postwar efforts.


Just goes to show with the right connections or right profession anyone can escape the atrocities that they committed….and all in the name of “democracy”…..

It is pathetic!

I Read, I Write, You Know

“lego ergo scribo”

HISTORY OF TOILET PAPER, PART II – BY ELLIN CURLEY — Serendipity Seeking Intelligent Life on Earth

I thought in these trying times in these trying times in the search for TP….I thought that a more in-depth look at the item and its history might help understand the need.

I recently wrote a blog about the history of toilet paper and the response was so enthusiastic, I decided to look further into the subject. Before toilet paper came into existence in 1857, people used leaves, moss, stones, corncobs or whatever was handy. The Romans used a sponge on a stick which doesn’t sound too […]

HISTORY OF TOILET PAPER, PART II – BY ELLIN CURLEY — Serendipity Seeking Intelligent Life on Earth

Death Of MLK, Jr

An important day in American history was basically ignored.  I realize that history is the furthest thing from most people’s minds…..but some of it is just too important….

The virus is sucking all the knowledge out of the days…yesterday we overlooked an important day….a day we should never forget…..the assassination of MLK. Jr.

Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee, on April 4, 1968, an event that sent shock waves reverberating around the world. A Baptist minister and founder of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), King had led the civil rights movement since the mid-1950s, using a combination of impassioned speeches and nonviolent protests to fight segregation and achieve significant civil rights advances for African Americans. His assassination led to an outpouring of anger among black Americans, as well as a period of national mourning that helped speed the way for an equal housing bill that would be the last significant legislative achievement of the civil rights era.


Further Reading:


This day should never be pushed aside…no matter the crisis….MLK’s memory is too important to the nation to be marginalized for any reason.

I Read, I Write, You Know

“lego ergo scribo”

The Pony Express

Yesterday, 03Apr, a day that should be remembered was overlooked in all the chaos and confusion around Covid-19….I am here to help solve that problem.

160 years ago a new mode of mail delivery began….it was the Pony Express…..a unique way of sending a letter West…..

Pony Express summary: Three men in the mid-1800s had an idea to open up a mail delivery system that reached from the Midwest all the way to California. The lack of speedy communication between the mid-west and the west was accentuated by the looming threat of a civil war. Russell, Waddell and Majors designed a system that spanned a number of over one hundred stations, each approximately two hundred forty miles long, across the country.

The Pony Express employed about eighty deliverymen and had around four hundred to five hundred horses to carry these riders from one post to the next. Monthly pay for these riders was fifty dollars, which were good wages at the time. Although this method of carrying mail was dangerous and difficult, all save one delivery made it to their destination.

This new way of mail delivery carried mail between Missouri and California in the span between ten and thirteen days, an astonishing speed for the time. Nineteen months after launching the Pony Express, it was replaced by the Pacific Telegraph line. The Pony Express was no longer needed. While it existed, the Pony Express provided a needed service but it was never quite the financial success it was hoped to be. The founders of the Pony Express line found that they were bankrupt.

Even though the Pony Express Company was no longer operating, its logo lived on when Wells Fargo purchased it and used it from 1866 until 1890 in their freight and stagecoach company.

Pony Express

There are a few things about the Pony Express that most Americans do not know….like there was a weight limit for riders……


As unique as the Pony Express seemed to be it was not the first to employ the use of riders to deliver the mail…….that privilege belong to the Persians in 500 BCE……..

In Ancient Persia, during the period of 550 BC to 521 BC, a true postal system was developed in Assyria. It is disputed whether it was Cyrus the Great or his successor Darius I, who was responsible. The postal system of Persia was operated by a series of stations. Each man would ride to the next station, where a fresh horse was waiting. When he reached the end of his shift, a fresh man would also be waiting, keeping the mail moving constantly towards its destination.

Early History of Postal Systems

Be Smart!

Learn Stuff!

Class Dismissed!

I Read, I Write, You Know

“lego ergo scribo”

A Mandate Of Heaven?

Interested in knowing what I mean?

Mandate of Heaven basically means there can only be one legitimate ruler and this ruler has the blessing of god….this idea started in China back during the Shang Dynasty 1046 BCE…..

That term popped to mind when I read something about the upcoming 2020 election…..

Donald Trump has made what he says are “jokes” claiming that he will not leave office at the end of his term on at least 27 separate occasions, according to one researcher’s count, sparking fears that he will refuse to step down even if he is defeated in the 2020 presidential election. On Saturday, the bestselling author of two investigative books about Trump outlined what he says is Trump’s “step-by-step” plan for holding on to the presidency, even if he loses in November.

According to Seth Abramson, the author of the New York Times bestselling book, Proof of Collusion: How Trump Betrayed America, Trump’s plan to remain in office despite an electoral defeat would not involve using the military or law enforcement to stage a “coup.”

Instead, Abramson wrote in a lengthy Twitter essay compiled by Thread Reader, the plot to reject the election results would unfold primarily through the media and the court system.

Author Claims Donald Trump Already Has ‘Step-By-Step’ Plan For Refusal To Leave Office If He Loses Election

Do I think that this will happen?

Probably not…..but that said Trump does think his shit don’t stink and I would not put some silliness like this from him if he loses in November.

What are the chances?

I Read, I Write, You Know

“lego ergo scribo”

More Plague History

I know that these times….days locked away in our separation……my thoughts are that while learning stuff about the way to be deal with this pandemic why not learn as well…..and history is always fascinating….that maybe just me.

I posted about the plagues of old and how they fit into the gravity of history………https://lobotero.com/2020/03/28/pandemics-in-history/

That post looked t the Middle Ages in Europe…..but they were not the only region to suffer……

Among the worst infections recorded is the plague which is fairly well documented in the West starting with the Plague of Justinian (541-542 CE) and continuing on through the Black Death (1347-1352 CE). Outbreaks of plague following the Black Death already had a body of literature to draw upon and so, in the West, are also well documented.

The same cannot be said for the plagues of the Near East which claimed millions of lives between 562-1486 CE throughout the regions now known as Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, Lebanon, Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt among others. The initial plague is thought to have been a continuation of Justinian’s Plague, although other theories as to origin have been suggested, and the epidemics which followed are considered either a resurgence of this plague or another strain brought to the region through trade or the return of troops from campaign. These outbreaks are sporadically mentioned in histories of the plague owing to a number of factors including:


Another thought…….How did the Greeks handle the outbreaks of disease in days past……

ith the spread of the coronavirus, the world is becoming pointedly aware of the extent to which human beings are interconnected. The rapid spread of the virus has highlighted how much we are dependent upon one another, not just for basic biological needs, but also for our sense of belonging and even commerce.

There’s nothing novel about this level of interdependence.

As historians of early Christianity, we know that from the sixth century B.C., people in the ancient Greek city-state, or polis, were acutely conscious of this dependence. They dealt with disease spread as a result of living in close quarters.


In other words…..shelter in place or separation has been a good plan for at least 2500 years.

More on the responses in history to a pandemic (plague)……

Throughout history, epidemics and pandemics of plague and other diseases have caused widespread panic and social disorder even, in some instances, when the people of one region were aware of a pervasive infection elsewhere. In the case of the Plague of Justinian (541-542 CE and after), for example, the people of Constantinople were aware of plague in the Near East for at least two years before it arrived in the city but made no provision because they did not consider it their problem.

Once the disease struck, the people felt overwhelmed as it seems as though they believed that what had happened to others elsewhere could not possibly happen to them. Since there was no concept of germ theory, no one understood the cause of these outbreaks or how they spread and so they were attributed to supernatural causes and the wrath of the gods or God.


Be clam…..avoid crowds….wash hands often….stay prepared……

Watch This Dismissed!

I Read, I Write, You Know

“lego ergo scribo”

Women’s History #6–Margaret Sanger

My closing tribute to women for this month…..afterwards I return to the world of Covid-19…..

Margaret Sanger…….Another woman that does not get much play in our study of history unless you are inn a women’s studies class…..she was an important rights activist for women’s birth control rights…..

The consequences of sexual relations between women and men simply were not fair.

An old double standard dictated that men were rewarded for sexual prowess and women suffered a damaged reputation. Males were encouraged to “sow a few wild oats” while women were told “good girls don’t.”

Most of all, if a relationship resulted in pregnancy, it was the woman who was left with the responsibility. For decades, pioneers like Margaret Sanger fought for contraceptives that women would control. With the introduction of the birth control pill to the market in 1960, women could for the first time deter pregnancy by their own choice.

The fight for reproductive freedoms was intense. Organized religions such as the Roman Catholic Church stood firm on their principles that artificial contraceptives were sinful. Many states in the early 1960s prohibited the sale of contraceptives — even to married couples.


More on Sanger’s life……

In the early 20th century, at a time when matters surrounding family planning or women’s healthcare were not spoken in public, Margaret Sanger founded the birth control movement and became an outspoken and life-long advocate for women’s reproductive rights. In her later life, Sanger spearheaded the effort that resulted in the modern birth control pill by 1960.

Born September 14, 1879, in Corning, New York, the sixth of eleven children born to Michael Hennessey Higgins, a stonemason, and Anna Purcell Higgins, a devoutly Roman Catholic Irishwoman. Sanger’s life course was shaped by the poverty of her childhood and the death of her mother at age 50, which Sanger understood resulted from the physical toll of eleven pregnancies. Sanger later became a nurse, attending Claverack College and Hudson River Institute in 1896 and completing the nursing program at White Plains Hospital in 1902. That year she married William Sanger, an architect, and moved to Hastings, New York, where the couple had three children

Sanger strongly believed that the ability to control family size was crucial to ending the cycle of women’s poverty. But it was illegal to distribute birth control information. Working as a visiting nurse, she frequented the homes of poor immigrants, often with large families and wives whose health was impaired by too many pregnancies, miscarriages, or in desperation botched abortions. Often, too, immigrant wives would ask her to tell them “the secret,” presuming that educated white women like Sanger knew how to limit family size. Sanger made it her mission to 1) provide women with birth control information and 2) repeal the federal Comstock Law, which prohibited the distribution of obscene materials through the mails, and regarded birth control information as such.


Another woman that has been pushed aside in favor of BS history that features men over women……Margaret Sanger deserves better than to be forgotten by the masses when she did so much in their name.

Be Smart!

Learn Stuff!

Class Dismissed!

I Read, I Write, You Know

“lego ergo scribo”