Proslavery Constitutionalism

This is where the history of the US gets a bit confusing……can you have an antislavery constitution and proslavery constitutionalism? Or how about the reverse?

Let’s look at these historic conundrum……

Historians today speak of the “proslavery Constitution” and “antislavery constitutionalism”; they almost never speak of the “antislavery Constitution” or of “proslavery constitutionalism.” This fact is a testament to the profound success of the critique of the Constitution leveled by abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison. In his condemnation of the Constitution as proslavery, his resort to Madison’s “Notes from the Constitutional Convention” to demonstrate this case, and his rejection of the Constitution’s authority—all punctuated by his dramatic burning of that document during a Fourth of July address—Garrison has set the terms within which subsequent historical debate on the relationship between the Constitution and slavery has been carried out.

Even historians who disdain Garrison’s caustic critique of the Constitution, who question his partial readings of the Convention’s debates, and who emphasize the development of constitutional arguments that culminated in the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments concede at some level Garrison’s premise that the Constitution was intended to be proslavery. Thus, it is sad, but not surprising, to see that the mob rounded up by the New York Times’s “1619 Project” is setting fire to the project of antislavery constitutionalism. Garrison’s belief that the Constitution was intended to be proslavery is an unquenchable fire that will eventually consume all it touches.

The Legend of the Proslavery Constitution

For more information on Garrison……https://www.ushistory.org/us/28a.asp

Here is a look at pro slavery in the early Republic……from the perspective of Univ. of Virginia……

According to the standard view of Southern history, there was a strong antislavery tradition in the South until the 1830’s when the militant abolitionist attacks upon not only slavery but also slaveholders forced Southerners into a defense of their peculiar institution. This view over­ looks, however, the strong proslavery tradition that also existed in the South from 1790 to 1830. This study is an attempt to re-examine this period and consider the proslavery arguments that did exist in the early United States.

Examining sources primarily from the public forum, such as speeches, newspaper articles, and pamphlets, this study focuses upon the proslavery positions presented in the early republic. It looks at not only the actual statements but also the rationale behind them. The defenses used ranged from Biblical sanction and historical precedent to “scientific” evidence, from constitutionalism and economics to social considerations and racism. In each instance, proslavery advocates justified the institution of black slavery, and the way of life based on it, as not only necessary but also beneficial for both whites and blacks.

https://libraetd.lib.virginia.edu/public_view/g445cd210

If you like reading about early American history then may I suggest this book…it is an interesting read…..https://d3p9z3cj392tgc.cloudfront.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/09162520/9781501726446.pdf

Further reading……

https://www.nationalreview.com/magazine/2019/09/30/the-anti-slavery-constitution/

Slavery is a terrible point in our history and to have a complete conversation we need to have all the facts and thoughts….and the ultra-conserv Heritage Foundation tries to explain the Constitution and slavery…..

While all today recognize this momentous accomplishment, many remain confused about the status of slavery under the original Constitution. Textbooks and history books routinely dismiss the Constitution as racist and pro-slavery. The New York Times, among others, continues to casually assert that the Constitution affirmed African-Americans to be worth only three-fifths of a human being.

Ironically, many Americans who are resolutely opposed to racism unwittingly agree with Chief Justice Roger Taney’s claim in Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) that the Founders’ Constitution regarded blacks as “so far inferior that they had no rights which the white man was bound to respect, and that the negro might justly and lawfully be reduced to slavery for his benefit.” In this view, the worst Supreme Court case decision in American history was actually correctly decided.

read more and you decide……

https://www.heritage.org/the-constitution/commentary/what-the-constitution-really-says-about-race-and-slavery

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Battling Histories

First it was the so-called liberals that started an educational program called the 1619 Project…..and as you would think I wrote about it…..https://gulfsouthfreepress.wordpress.com/2020/08/30/that-1619-project/

Not to be out done by the “liberals” the fascists have talked Donald the Orange into a more racially inspired educational program….it will be called the 1776 Commission.

President Trump says he’ll sign an executive order to “promote patriotic education” after bashing a New York Times project investigating how the the legacy of slavery impacts Black Americans as “toxic propaganda.” In what the AP sees as “a defense of white culture,” Trump on Thursday painted the 1619 Project—named after the year in which the first slaves arrived in Virginia—as “ideological poison that if not removed will dissolve the civic bonds that tie us together. It will destroy our country.” The Pulitzer Prize-winning project, which now offers curriculum for schools, teaches that “we were founded on the principle of oppression, not freedom. Nothing could be further from the truth,” the president said during the White House Conference on American History, per Axios.

He said America’s founding had led to the abolition of slavery and “the most fair, equal, and prosperous nation in human history.” Trump said the 1776 Commission that will be launched as a result of his executive order will encourage educators to teach “the miracle of American history,” per Politico. 1619 Project founder Nikole Hannah-Jones’ response: The attempts “to censor a work of American journalism” and dictate what children “should and should not learn should be deeply alarming to all Americans who value free speech.” Elsewhere, Education Secretary Betsy DeVos praised the 1776 Unites curriculum, launched this week by the group 1776 Unites as a direct response to the 1619 Project. The group says its curriculum offers “a more complete and inspiring story of the history of African-Americans” in the US.

As usual a service for those afflicted with an allergy to reading….a short video…..

During his presser he once again attacked teachers/professors as somehow agents of evil…..and I , as you would think, wrote about this type of thinking by the fascists in the GOP…..https://lobotero.com/2020/02/22/those-damn-liberal-professors/

A side note here….I will stop referring to them as ‘fascists’ when they refrain from labeling anyone that does not agree with them as a “socialist”…..until then my labels remain.

You know those “dog whistles” that Trump throws out for his supporters?  It is racism plain and simple!

President Donald Trump’s rhetoric is often referred to as “dog whistle politics.”

In politician speak, a dog whistle is language that conveys a particular meaning to a group of potential supporters. The targeted group hears the “whistle” because of its shared cultural reference, but others cannot.

In 2018, The Washington Post wrote that “perhaps no one has sent more dog whistles than President Trump.”

https://theconversation.com/trumps-appeals-to-white-anxiety-are-not-dog-whistles-theyre-racism-146070

Why does this rhetoric appeal to these people?

There’s no gentle way to put it: People who give in to racism and prejudice may simply be dumb, according to a new study that is bound to stir public controversy.

The research finds that children with low intelligence are more likely to hold prejudiced attitudes as adults. These findings point to a vicious cycle, according to lead researcher Gordon Hodson, a psychologist at Brock University in Ontario. Low-intelligence adults tend to gravitate toward socially conservative ideologies, the study found. Those ideologies, in turn, stress hierarchy and resistance to change, attitudes that can contribute to prejudice, Hodson wrote in an email to LiveScience.

“Prejudice is extremely complex and multifaceted, making it critical that any factors contributing to bias are uncovered and understood,” he said.

https://www.livescience.com/18132-intelligence-social-conservatism-racism.html

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After The Fall?

Okay the America Civil War is over….the North has defeated the South in the war of “Northern Aggression”…..where did the losers slink off to after the fall?

Not all ran home to the plantation to lick their wounds.

Some went West and even some went as far as Mexico….but what did the majority actually do?

The late Charlie Daniels had a decent hit in 1974 with “The South’s Gonna Do It Again.” It would have provided a proper ear worm for Confederate forces and loyalists in 1865 after Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse. Post-war conditions were not ideal in the southern states. Most of the war had been fought on Confederate soil, and it showed. Agriculture and infrastructure were devastated. Thousands of lives had been lost; other lives were irretrievably damaged. Economic opportunity was nearly nonexistent.

Some people went West to start over. There was land to be settled for displaced Southerners. More than one writer has suggested that part of the controversy in Tombstone, Arizona, between the Earps and the Cow-boys was that the Earps and their backers were Northerners — Virgil and James had both fought in the Union army — and as Casey Tefertiller writes in Wyatt Earp: The Life Behind the Legend, “the ranchers and cowboys of southern Arizona were mostly Democrats of Southern origin or sympathies.” (Doc Holliday, Earp ally and son of Georgia, was an exception.) But not everyone who remained loyal to the defeated Confederacy — the noble “Lost Cause,” celebrated by poets like Father Abram Ryan, per the Alabama website — even stayed within the freshly reunited United States. Slavery was abolished. The cause was lost. The war was over — but that didn’t have to mean the end. They were facing a military occupation by Northern troops in the wake of the conflict, what some called the “War of Northern Aggression.”

https://www.grunge.com/235923/this-is-where-confederate-loyalists-fled-to-after-the-civil-war/

Then there are the defeated leaders…..what became of these men?

Jefferson Davis, president of the Confederacy, spent two years shackled to a wall in a Virginia prison. He had many unlikely sympathetic supporters including the Pope, who advocated for mercy, and even some former enemies and abolitionists. After he was released he went to Canada and Cuba and England and eventually managed a successful insurance company, hiring only former Confederate officers. He remained an unrepentant racist and Confederate supporter until the end of his life.

Alexander Stephens, the vice president of the Confederacy, was arrested and held in prison at George’s Island in Boston until October, 1865. He was released from indemnity by Andrew Johnson, a pro-slavery, anti-Black President. He was elected to the Senate, which refused to allow him to sit; was elected to Congress; and became the governor of Georgia. Stephens was a rabid anti-Black racist who wrote the “Cornerstone Speech” stating the the Civil War was all about slavery and that Blacks would never be the equals of Whites.

https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/553359/where-did-confederate-leaders-go-after-confederacy-was-defeated

There were so many things that most Americans do not know about the Civil War….so much more than bang bang shoot’um up……

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Constitution Day

Closing Thought–17Sep20

It is 17 September and the day set aside as Constitution Day……if ever there should be a federal holiday to celebrate our independence it should be 17 September….for it is when the United States stepped out of confusion and presented the republic to the nation.

Of course that is just my opinion….but since it is Constitution Day I would like to write about the document that is so cherished by us Americans.

First the day we are celebrating…..

Constitution Day is observed every year on September 17 to commemorate the signing and adoption of the constitution of the United States of America by the Founding Fathers in Philadelphia on September 17, 1787.

Constitution Day is also known as Citizenship Day, which was the name of the holiday until 2004, as its purpose was to “recognize all who, by coming of age or by naturalization, have become citizens”. Citizenship Day in turn was inspired by “I am an American Day”, created in the 1940s to celebrate citizenship. The official name of the holiday is now “Constitution Day and Citizenship Day”.

Celebrations are held on this day, and schools hold instruction sessions on the founding principles and the significance of the US constitution and the constitutional rights contained in it. When the day falls on a Saturday or Sunday, schools and other institutions observe Constitution Day on a nearby weekday.

Further reading: Constitution Day on Wikipedia

Do yourself a favor and read the document…..

https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/United_States_of_America_1992

https://www.senate.gov/civics/constitution_item/constitution.htm

Click to access CDOC-110hdoc50.pdf

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Vietnam–The Mistakes

Old Professor’s History Class.

I study conflict, war if you will, and have found a couple of events around the war in Vietnam that can be labelled as arrogant mistakes….first by France and then by the US.

I realize there have been volumes written about this conflict….but few by people that actually fought that war.

As a veteran of this war I have studied and made my thoughts known….but there were more mistakes than just those of the US….France for instance was just as arrogant as the US and it cost them the territory and the war….a war that the US had to pick up and carry on (more on that further into this post)……

First thing to do is to throw all the Hollywood adaptations of this war down the toilet (TP not needed)……most of that stuff was total bullshit…….

France’s biggest screw up was arrogantly thinking they had a force, the Viet Minh, that was backward and incapable of carry on a proper war…..that was true and Giap decided that a guerilla war would accomplish the desires of throwing the French from Vietnamese soil.

The final nail in the coffin of the French in Vietnam was the battle of Dien Bien Phu……

It is 1954 in Southeast Asia….the French have been fighting for years against the Viet Minh under Ho and Giap and the French decided to make one final push to destroy opposition and be done with this war.  Sadly it did not work out as brilliantly as the French had promised……in fact a band of guerillas with no technology, aircraft, etc. handed the French their asses…..

The most consequential military engagement in Southeast Asia in the 20th century is the 1954 Battle of Dien Bien Phu. It was fought ostensibly between the French and the communist-led Viet Minh at Dien Bien Phu, an obscure valley bordering China, in the remote northwestern part of what was then French Indochina. The battle ended with a humiliating defeat for the French, which brought down the French government, ended French colonial rule in Asia, ushered in America’s epic military involvement in the region for decades to come, and fundamentally changed the global geostrategic landscape.

How the French lost this pivotal battle is just as telling as how significant the French defeat became.

https://www.hoover.org/research/lessons-dien-bien-phu

This conflict is seldom taught classes these days….and I think it should be mandatory…..this conflict illustrates just how very brilliant of a guerilla war can be…..and could have prevented mistakes.

Not all the mistakes we by the French in the Southeast Asian wars…..the US was just as arrogant as the French.

That brings me to the Tet Offensive…..

I was fortunate enough to live through those days of constant fighting….

I was a member of a LRRP team (long range recon) and for days we were watching a NVA troop movement we identified the unit as the 174th NVA Regitment…..we made our way back to base and reported what we had found and were basically called liars for they had info that they were camped 100 km northwest of the position we reported….in other words they believed signal intel over human intel and it bit them in the ass for the 174th was one of the units that did a lot of damage.

Finally someone has written about the lack of any good human intel in Vietnam……

The intelligence failings fall into three broad categories. In Vietnam, the US military possessed a lack of foresight, neglected fundamental intelligence-gathering principles, and suffered from an absence of strategy and direction.

On a fundamental level, US military intelligence was unable to gauge the level of communist infiltration in the South of the country. This meant the US forces had almost no idea of the size of the enemy’s forces

https://parlia.com/a/Pb7sF3gPgNp5NmfJLP7FzZj/why-did-the-us-lose-the-vietnam-war/us-strategic-failures/intelligence-failures

It was a lie then and it is a lie now!

The officials were told what was coming and everyone decide to believe a pile of mumbo jumbo from the electronics instead of those that had witnessed the movements.

For those interested this is the declassified reports……

https://www.intelligence.gov/tet-declassified/tet-declassified-documents

Further Reading:

https://www.thehistorypress.co.uk/articles/the-vietnam-war-tet-offensive/

https://www.britannica.com/topic/Tet-Offensive

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Closing Thought–16Sep20

The 1619 Project

With all this renewed interest in the history of slavery there has been a new educational project put together to teach students more about the institution of slavery over the sanitized version most get these days…. this attempt has been called “The 1619 Project”…….I covered this attempt on my op-ed blog……https://gulfsouthfreepress.wordpress.com/2020/08/30/that-1619-project/

I bring this up again because the president has said that schools that teach his will not be getting their federal funds…..(this from Epoch Times….not a source that I would go to regularly)

President Donald Trump on Sunday warned the Department of Education is investigating the use of the New York Times’ “1619 Project” in schools, saying that institutions that use the alternative narrative of U.S. history could lose federal funding.

The “1619 Project,” created by Nikole Hannah-Jones and widely panned by historians and political scientists, attempts to cast the Atlantic slave trade as the dominant factor in the founding of America instead of ideals such as individual liberty and natural rights. Some critics have said that it is an attempt to rewrite U.S. history through a left-wing lens. Some historians have criticized the project over inaccuracies such as the American Revolution having been fought to preserve the institution of slavery rather than for seeking independence from Britain.

“Department of Education is looking at this. If so, they will not be funded!” Trump wrote on Twitter Sunday, responding to a post that said California has “implemented the 1619 project into the public schools,” and that “soon you won’t recognize [A]merica.” California’s Department of Education came up with a draft model last month to include some of the project in history classes.

https://www.theepochtimes.com/trump-says-schools-teaching-ny-times-1619-project-will-not-be-funded_3489668.html

Let me see if I have this right….the president does not like the historical project so he will punish schools that teach it…..is that not what a dictator would do….that is if we had one in power?

I do think that the institution of slavery needs more attention in our schools, K-12, to ignore it is to ignore a principle of our Founding.

I cannot see how the founding was “all about” individual freedoms”……blacks and women were not equal or particularly free….the see it any other way is just an excellent whitewashing of history.

This country needs to have that “conversation” on slavery and it needs to stop hiding behind sanitized revisionism before it can be had.

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We Kicked The Vietnam Syndrome!

Good news for us…Sally went East and we got a little rain and some wind……the old news is that Florida is getting hammered……

Time for some history…..

That was the proclamation of Pres. George H.W. Bush at the end of the 1991 Gulf War.

I guess the best place to start is to explain the term “Vietnam Syndrome”…..

It is the belief, born of brutal experience during the Vietnam War, that never again will the United States gradually tiptoe into questionable wars without a clearcut objective, overwhelming military force, an endgame strategy and, most important, the support of Congress and the American people.

It’s Called the Vietnam Syndrome, and It’s Back

When you think of the word, ‘syndrome,’ you might think of a medical disease – something which is perhaps not overt but still affects an individual’s functions and decisions. The same was true for the political and societal phenomenon known as the Vietnam Syndrome, which refers to America’s wariness to engage in any foreign conflicts after the Vietnam War. In this lesson, we will explore the roots of Vietnam Syndrome and how it manifested itself in our society.

But what causes this “affliction”?

Vietnam Syndrome was caused, in part, by the haphazard way the United States intervened in the Vietnam conflict and the debacle it became. The United States fought a brief but large war in Vietnam, seemingly by accident. The United States first sent advisors to South Vietnam in the 1950s to train troops. The goal was to aid the failing democratic state and stop the spread of communism in Asia. Throughout the late 1950s and early 1960s, more and more military personnel were sent to support that mission.

By 1968, there were more than half a million American troops in Vietnam providing the backbone of South Vietnam’s resistance to North Vietnam, which sought to unify the country under communist rule. Ill-equipped and ill-trained for a guerrilla war in the jungles of Vietnam, U.S. forces took heavy casualties. By the time the last American troops were withdrawn in 1973, more than 58,000 U.S. servicemen and women were either dead, missing, or presumed dead. To make matters worse, these deaths ultimately occurred in vain; South Vietnam fell to the communists once and for all two years later.

https://study.com/academy/lesson/vietnam-syndrome-definition-causes-impact.html

I bring this all up because we are approaching the 30 years anniversary of this conflict…..and the question should be….what did we learn from our war in the Gulf?

According to documents of the time…….

According to National Security Directive 54, dated Jan. 15, 1991, there were four major war aims: complete Iraqi withdrawal from Kuwait, restore Kuwait’s government, protect American lives (in particular, free hostages), and “promote the security and the stability of the Persian Gulf.”

On the last aim we failed miserably.

So was the war a rip roaring success that we have been led to believe?

Was the Gulf War (1990 to 1991) a success for the United States? To many, the answer is unequivocally “yes.” After all, the United States rallied the international community to punish aggression and liberate a small country (Kuwait) that had been invaded by its larger, authoritarian neighbor (Iraq). The country marshaled its formidable instruments of diplomatic, informational, military, and economic power to garner international support and achieved its objectives quickly at a relatively limited cost; adeptly executed joint and multinational military operations; and displayed astonishing military capabilities heralded as the beginning of a “revolution in military affairs.” These elements of the U.S. campaign should be celebrated and, where possible, emulated in the future.

But the United States should be careful not to mythologize its performance in the Gulf War. For example, war termination was handled haphazardly in a manner that hurt policy goals for regional stability. Following the war, great-power and non-state competitors sought to identify and exploit U.S. vulnerabilities with asymmetric responses while excessive military deference from allies often placed a greater burden on the United States. Lastly, U.S. military prowess in the war led to hubris, and reinforced a neglect for diplomacy, irregular warfare, stability operations, and governance. The country should continue to study the record of the Gulf War to identify and attend to demonstrated deficiencies, and to analyze subsequent responses of adversaries and allies.

The Gulf War 30 Years Later: Successes, Failures, and Blind Spots

We did nothing to secure the Middle East….in the long rub we made matters worse.

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The Dakota Uprising

This is for my American Civil War buffs….there were many battles that do not make the history books and this is just such a conflict…

The year is 1862 and the place is Minnesota.

Fort Snelling played a central role in the war and its aftermath. In early August 1862, recruitment of the Sixth through Eleventh Infantry regiments meant for service in the Civil War had commenced. When news of Dakota attacks reached St. Paul, Governor Ramsey appointed Henry Sibley a colonel in the state’s military forces and commander of the army that would march against the Dakota. Sibley led four hastily armed companies of the Sixth Infantry Regiment from Fort Snelling to St. Peter. Over the next few days, a trickle of supplies and detachments from the other partially recruited infantry regiments and militia units left Fort Snelling to join Sibley.

The state’s military forces came under federal control on September 16, when Major General John Pope assumed command of the newly created Military Department of the Northwest. Sibley, just appointed a brigadier general of US Army volunteers, directed the US forces in the decisive Battle of Wood Lake on September 23, defeating the Dakota. Many of the Dakota combatants moved westward into Dakota Territory, while others went north to Canada, but many of the men who had fought stayed with their families, who could not move swiftly enough to escape. Numerous Dakota who had not participated in the war, as well as some who had, met Sibley’s army at a place that came to be called Camp Release. When he arrived, Sibley took the Dakota into the custody of the US military.

https://www.mnhs.org/fortsnelling/learn/us-dakota-war

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Least We Forget

Closing Thought–11Sep20

I know that there is a lot of news to digest these days….but today is the anniversary of the dastardly attack on the US by those barbarians in AQ……the 9/11 attacks.

My friend Kim had a good post today……https://cadburypom.wordpress.com/2020/09/11/9-11-19th-anniversary/

It seems that most Americans are too self-adsorb to notice any more….unless it somehow benefits them personally.  So let me take you through a few things that you may not know about the attacks………

Monday marks the anniversary of the terrorist attacks on Sept. 11, 2001, that killed 2,977 people in New York, the Pentagon and in a field in rural Pennsylvania. The attacks and the reaction to them have shaped U.S. policy for more than 15 years, leaving a nation that is far more vigilant and jittery about terrorism. Yet for all of the talk about 9/11, many elements of the attacks and the actions leading up to them have receded from the public memory. Here are 10 things you may have forgotten about 9/11:

https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2016/09/10/10-things-you-may-have-forgotten-911/90007376/

There are things that changed after then attacks of  9/11……

We deported half the number of people we do today. Our surveillance state was a fraction of its current size. And — perhaps hardest to believe — we didn’t have to take off our shoes to go through airport security.

America’s involvement in the War on Terror — prompted by the 9/11 terrorist attacks — resulted in a dramatic change in our nation’s attitudes and concerns about safety, vigilance and privacy.

It ushered in a new generation of policies like the USA Patriot Act,  prioritizing national security and defense, often at the expense of civil liberties.

These changes continue to have ripple effects across the globe, particularly in the Middle East, where American-led military operations helped foment rebellions and ongoing warfare throughout the region.

Below are four of the many dramatic impacts — nationwide and in California — resulting from the events of that one tragic day.

https://www.kqed.org/lowdown/14066/13-years-later-four-major-lasting-impacts-of-911

Our lives changed and not for the better…..our lives became more militaristic….and the world became a more dangerous place.

Please take a moment to remember those who died on 9/11.

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Those Damn Crusades

There is lots of opinions about the Crusades…..BTW there were 8 total but there were many minor battles that some could call Crusades.

We in the West know mostly about those Crusades that were successful…..for no one here wants to admit failure…..

The Crusades were a series of military campaigns organised by Christian powers in order to retake Jerusalem and the Holy Land back from Muslim control. There would be eight officially sanctioned crusades between 1095 CE and 1270 CE and many more unofficial ones. Each campaign met with varying successes and failures but, ultimately, the wider objective of keeping Jerusalem and the Holy Land in Christian hands failed. Nevertheless, the appeal of the crusading ideal continued right up to the 16th century CE, and the purpose of this article is to consider what were the motivating factors for crusaders, from the Pope to the humblest warrior, especially for the very first campaign which established a model to be followed thereafter.

https://www.ancient.eu/article/1249/the-crusades-causes–goals/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crusades

https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/crus/hd_crus.htm

Can anyone name the first clash of Muslim-Christian forces in the First Crusade?

The Battle of Dorylaeum, fought on July 1, 1097, marked the first full-scale military clash between the Christian armies of the West and the Muslim armies of the East. As such, it would prove to be an educational experience for both armies, one whose final outcome would have an extreme influence on the course of the First Crusade.

Dorylaeum: The First Christian-Muslim Clash of the Crusades

All the blood and death….were the Crusades a success or not?

To answer the question is this link to a book…..https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/168393

For those allergic to the printed word and reading…I have a short video for your education….

Not too late to Learn Stuff!

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