Does Terrorism Work?

From time to time I get papers written by grad students…..and the interesting ones I try to share with the readers IST…..

Just a few short years ago terrorism was all the buzz….today not so much……

Does terrorism work?

That is the question for the ages.

Some will say it does not….while others may disagree…..

This paper takes a look at the question…..

Terrorism is one of the most widely discussed issues in the twenty-first century due to the increasing terrorist occurrences and its destructive impacts, especially since the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. Terrorist incidences in the world reached its peak in 2014 with about 16,903 attacks leading to 32,658 fatalities (Global Terrorism Index, 2015). However, there was a fifty-two per cent reduction in the number of deaths associated with terrorist incidences in 2018 compared to 2014 (Global Terrorism Index, 2019). While there is a decline in the number of deaths attributed to terrorism, its impact remains prevalent. For instance, there is an upsurge in the number of countries that experienced terrorism in 2018 with at least one causality from seventy-one countries, which is the second highest in the past twenty years (Global Terrorism Index, 2019). The increasing nature of terrorist attacks has led to the intensification of scholarly interest in terrorism and terrorism-related issues. To this end, prior research has examined the definitions, causes, effects and strategies used by terrorist groups (Halliday, 2001; John, 2014; Elu and Gregory, 2015). However, it seems that the few studies that have examined the effectiveness of terrorism as a means of political struggle have been inconclusive.

In order to understand the reason for the continued existence of terrorism and its proliferation, it is crucial to examine if terrorism works, that is, if it achieves its stated objectives. This essay will contribute to the ongoing discussion on the effectiveness of terrorism by arguing that the answer to the question “Does terrorism work?” depends on our definition of “terrorism” and “work”. These concepts are a subject of debate, and as a result, there may not be one formula for measuring whether terrorism is effective. Thus, the success-level of terrorism is determined by various factors, especially by how it is evaluated. For example, while Dershowitz (2002:13) understands success in terms of attracting media attention and securing temporal concessions, Abrahms (2006:51) perceives it as the achievement the organisation’s central strategic objectives. Consequently, this essay will contend that although terrorist organisations rarely achieve their strategic goals, they often succeed in the achievement of other objectives.

Does Terrorism Work?

You tell me…does terrorism work?

I Read, I Write, You Know

“lego ergo scribo”

Closing Thought–22Jan21

Why would an American soldier want to destroy the memorial to those that died on 9/11?

I know with everything happening around the inauguration of Biden some news falls by the wayside…..

While we were distracted by the oath of office and the antics of the Trump supporters an American soldier has planned an attack on a national monument…..the 9/11 Monument.

An American soldier discussed targets for potential terror attacks in the United States and shared instructions for killing American troops in the Middle East with someone he believed was an Islamic State supporter, federal authorities said on Tuesday.

While stationed in Germany last fall, the soldier discussed possible targets, including the National September 11 Memorial & Museum in Lower Manhattan, a criminal complaint shows.

“Choose your targets wisely,” the soldier, Cole James Bridges, an Army private from Ohio, wrote to the person he believed was a woman working with the Islamic State. But it turned out that Private Bridges was messaging with an undercover employee of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, according to the complaint, which was made public on Tuesday by federal prosecutors in Manhattan.

Why would any American want to destroy this monument to the dead?  Especially an American soldier that has taken the oath to protect and defend.

I have noticed that oaths do not mean a thing any more….people take them because the have to not because they want to.

This plan is disgusting and should not be condoned or explained away…..punish the planner.

I Read, I Write, You Know

“lego ergo scribo”

 

Please Pull The Plug On Israel

NOTE: I am not anti Jewish this post is about actions of the Israeli government and some of the right radical citizens.

Since 1967 I have had an extreme dislike for the state of Israel….it began with the murderous attack on the naval vessel USS Liberty that killed many of its crew and it continued with the barbarous treatment of the Palestinian people……they treat minorities like shit.

I do not understand the moronic loyalty of the US and some of its people to a state that has one of the worse civil rights records in the world. and our government that seems to kiss ass whenever Israel is around.

Then there all the lies that Israel has spread about Iran seemingly to lather up the US into some sort of military action directed at the country.

Now Israel is threatening (as it seemingly does every year) to attack Iran….

According to a report from the Israel Hayom, the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) is drawing up plans for an attack on Iran’s nuclear program.

The report said IDF Chief of Staff Aviv Kohavi asked the military for three proposals to hit the nuclear program. The Hayom did not elaborate on the proposals but did say one of them included a military strike.

The Hayom said the military option would require Israel to invest more money into its military and quoted Israeli Defense Minister Benny Gantz. “It is clear that Israel needs to have a military option on the table. It requires resources and investment, and I am working to make that happen,” he said.

The Israelis say they are responding to increased uranium enrichment recently announced by Iran.

Iran said they are increasing uranium enrichment to 20 percent to make fuel rods for the Tehran Research Reactor, a facility that was built by the US in the 1960s. Despite sensationalist headlines in Western media, the increased enrichment has a civilian purpose and does not indicate the Iranians are racing towards a bomb.

Iran’s parliament passed a law calling for increased enrichment after the November assassination of scientist Mohsen Fakhrizadeh, who killed in an apparent Israeli plot. So it was Israeli aggression that ultimately led to the increased enrichment that Israel is now making threats over.

The Hayom report came a day after a minister from Israel’s Likud party threatened to attack Iran if the Biden administration returns to the 2015 nuclear deal, known as the JCPOA.

(antiwar.com)

Seriously?

Now they want to dictate our foreign policy?

Who do they think they are?

Any debt the world felt they owed to Israel has been paid in full by ten-fold….it is time to stop treating them with kid gloves and time for then start behaving like a civilized nation.

Time has come for the US to cut the apron strings and take control of that situation.

I Read, I Write, You Know

“lego ergo scribo”

Make It Go Bang!

By now everyone has heard about the moron that blew up himself and his RV in Nashville. The thing is this person is handled with kid gloves in the media (at least that is how it appears)…..my question is….WHY?

The Nashville narrative is pretty clear: Authorities say Anthony Quinn Warner packed his RV with explosives and blew it and himself up on Christmas while parked downtown. He was, by the most basic definition of the term, a suicide bomber. And yet you’d be hard-pressed to find the phrase in media coverage, writes Danielle Campoamor at Refinery29. The same applies to “domestic terrorist.” Campoamor calls out “legacy publications” in general for avoiding the terminology, particularly the New York Times and the local Tennessean, which is part of Gannett. Instead of being called a suicide bomber or a domestic terrorist, Quinn is being described as a lonely, older white guy. If he were Black or brown, he wouldn’t be getting the same treatment, writes Campoamor. She notes that this Times article in particular set off a backlash among critics like her.

“Editors and political talking heads dragging their feet to name a white domestic terrorist accordingly is hardly new,” she writes. Men like those recently accused of plotting to kidnap Michigan’s governor usually are instead described as “militia” members or “watchmen.” Campoamor isn’t the only calling attention to this. “If a bomber commits suicide with a bomb wouldn’t you call that person a suicide bomber?” tweets Molly Jong-Fast of the Daily Beast. The problem goes beyond media semantics, writes Campamor, pointing as an example to the way hate crimes against Muslims spike after an attack by someone claiming to be one. “This refusal to hold white men to the same standard—to the same level of villainization—plays a large part in the culture of hate crimes that runs rampant in America,” Campamor notes. (Read her full column.)

Why was this white guy a lonely man with mental problems?

I do not think a black or brown person would have gotten such favorable treatment….they would have been thugs or terrorists.

What gave this demented person the benefit of the doubt when others are not so lucky?

Question….answer?

I Read, I Write, You Know

“lego ergo scribo”

Tragic Christmas Surprise

While must of us were preparing for one of our big days…tragedy struck in the city of Nashville…..

An explosion shook the largely deserted streets of downtown Nashville early Christmas morning, shattering windows, damaging buildings, and wounding three people, per the AP. Authorities said they believed the blast was intentional, and the FBI is leading the investigation. Police spokesman Don Aaron said the 6:30am explosion was believed to be “an intentional act,” though no further details were provided. Police earlier said they believe a vehicle was involved in the explosion. Aaron said three people were taken to area hospitals for treatment, although none were in critical condition. The Metro Nashville Office of Emergency Management told WKRN that a parked recreational vehicle exploded and damaged several buildings.

Black smoke and flames were seen early Friday billowing from the area, which is packed with bars, restaurants, and other retail establishments and is known as the heart of downtown Nashville’s tourist scene. Buildings shook in the immediate area and beyond after a loud boom was heard. “All my windows, every single one of them got blown into the next room. If I had been standing there it would have been horrible,” said Buck McCoy, who lives near the area. “It felt like a bomb. It was that big.”

This report was updated while it sat in my draft queue……..

A strange new twist has developed in regard to the explosion that rocked downtown Nashville on Christmas morning. Police and witnesses say a recreational vehicle broadcast warnings that a bomb was in the vehicle and counted down a 15-minute warning before the explosion, reports the Tennessean. As of Friday afternoon, three people were hospitalized with non-life-threatening injuries as authorities led by the FBI try to figure out what happened. Coverage:

  • The start: Police responded to a call of shots fired about 6am and discovered the “suspicious” RV parked on a street, reports the Washington Post. The bomb squad was en route when the explosion occurred about 6:30am, per the AP.
  • Warnings: Witnesses heard this coming from the RV: “Evacuate now. There is a bomb. A bomb is in this vehicle and will explode,” according to the Tennessean. Then a 15-minute countdown began. “Whoever did it did gave fair warning,” says Betsy Williams, owner of the nearby Melting Pot restaurant. She and her family also live in the building, and they evacuated in their pajamas. Williams says she thinks the RV showed up Thursday night.
  • Questions: Authorities don’t know if anyone was in the RV when it exploded. Nor have they speculated on a possible motive. “We do believe this to have been an intentional act,” says police spokesman Don Aaron said. “Significant damage has been done to the infrastructure there on 2nd Avenue North.” CNN quotes a law enforcement source who says there were no known threats about a Christmas strike among extremist groups.
  • A promise: “We will find out who did this,” Special Agent in Charge Matt Foster of the FBI said at an afternoon news conference. “This is our city, too. We’re putting everything we have into finding who was responsible for what happened here today.” President Trump has been briefed, reports WKRN.
  • Dog walker: Police began knocking on doors and telling people to evacuate in the minutes before the blast. One man walking his dog was directed away from the site moments before the explosion, notes the Post.
  • Damage: It will take time to assess, but several buildings sustained structural damage, and photos showed destroyed cars, scattered glass, broken water mains, and shards of metal strewn everywhere. “It looks like a bomb went off,” says Mayor John Cooper

Of course this will be a continuing story until the conclusion and arrests are made.

Barbaric!

All involved should be punished and punished severely……

I Read, I Write, You Know

“lego ergo scribo”

Closing Thought–23Dec20

Some troubling news for the holidays……

I know we have not heard much from those barbaric pricks of AQ and ISIS….but a report is starting circulate that these groups could be planning something big for the holiday season….

Aimen Dean, a former Al Qaeda bombmaker turned spy for the U.K.’s MI6 spy agency, is warning that the Islamic State (ISIS) terror group is preparing a wave of attacks in Britain, France, and Germany ahead of Christmas.

Dean said ISIS commander Abu Omar al-Shishani is planning to send attackers to Europe through Turkey and across the Mediterranean from North Africa, The Daily Mail reported. Speaking at the International Security Week conference, which ran from Nov. 30 to Dec. 3, Dean said Shishani is primarily motivated to attack the countries over recent incidents in which depictions of the prophet Muhammad have been shared, in violation of some Islamic practices.

“The worry is that, according to people who know him, [Shishani] is planning to avenge the Prophet Mohammed cartoons in places like Germany, UK, France and all around Christmas time,” Dean said. “I’m afraid I’m not bearing good news but we need to be worried about the wave of terror that is coming from northern Syria and Libya for Christmas this year,” Dean said.

Dean derives his expertise from working as a bomb-maker for Al Qaeda and then informing on the group for eight years, the Daily Mail reported.

Dean raised a particular warning that European leaders trying to lift coronavirus related lockdowns around the Christmas holiday are only further enticing the terrorist plotters.

“This promise of no lockdown at Christmas has made it a more attractive time frame for targeting,” Dean said. “Already they have been thinking about it, already they have been looking at it and I feel this will be the next target.”

source:  American Military News

Not a surprise…but this info should be more readily available to the public…..

Learn Stuff!

I Read, I Write, You Know

“lego ergo scribo”

Pan Am Flight 103

Does anyone remember this tragedy?

No?

How about the Lockerbie bombing?

Still nothing?

On December 21, 1988, on a cold and ultimately chilling evening just four days before Christmas, Pan Am Flight 103 took off from London’s Heathrow Airport bound for New York City. Among the 259 passengers and crew were 189 Americans.

They never made it home. Less than 40 minutes into the flight, the plane exploded over the sky above Lockerbie, Scotland, killing everyone on board and 11 Scots on the ground.

Until 9/11, it was one of the world’s most lethal acts of air terrorism and one of the largest and most complex acts of international terrorism ever investigated by the FBI.

Solving the case required unprecedented international cooperation—and hours upon hours of painstaking work. With the mid-air explosion 30,000 feet up, debris rained down over 845 square miles across Scotland. FBI agents and international investigators combed the countryside on hands and knees looking for clues in virtually every blade of grass, eventually turning up thousands of pieces of evidence. They also traversed the globe, interviewing more than 10,000 individuals in dozens of countries.

Participating in the investigation were an array of international police organizations from such countries as Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and, of course, Great Britain (including Scotland).

Ultimately, forensic specialists from the FBI, the CIA, and elsewhere determined that one of the fragments found on the ground, no bigger than a thumbnail, came from the circuit board of a radio/cassette player. That tiny piece of evidence helped establish that the bomb had been placed inside that radio and tape deck in a piece of luggage. Another small fragment, found embedded in a piece of shirt, helped identify the type of timer.

https://www.fbi.gov/history/famous-cases/pan-am-103-bombing

The family of the person convicted of the bombing has asked for the evidence and documents to be made public……

The family of the only person convicted in the deadliest terror attack in British history say documents held by the UK government could clear his name—but the government is refusing to unseal them. Scotland’s most senior judges have ruled to uphold the secrecy order for documents connected to the 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland, which killed 270 people, the Guardian reports. Earlier this year, the family of former Libyan intelligence officer Abdelbaset al-Megrahi, who died in 2012, was granted permission to posthumously appeal his conviction. They say the secret papers will prove that the bombing was actually carried out by a Syria-based extremist group called the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, acting on orders from Iran.

The documents, which allegedly name a Jordanian intelligence agent as the bomb-maker, are believed to have been sent by King Hussein of Jordan, per the Guardian. When he issued the order protecting the documents, UK Foreign Secretary Dominic Raab said releasing them to the defense would harm national security, the National reports. “The documents were provided in confidence to the United Kingdom Government by another state,” Raab said. “Disclosure of the documents would harm the United Kingdom’s international relations with that state.” In a 2007 ruling, however, the Scottish Criminal Cases Review Commission said the documents raised questions about al-Megrahi’s conviction. His appeal at the time was abandoned before he was released on compassionate grounds in 2009.

Let me insert this before the question I have.

I am by no means saying this person was innocent of the crime….just that there are some questions on the decision to keep info classified.

Now I asked if there was a trial and a person convicted of the crime….why are these documents still secret?

What are they protecting?

Was the person railroaded?

Why not make the information public and let everyone see the evidence?

I Read, I Write, You Know

“lego ergo scribo”

Least We Forget

Closing Thought–11Sep20

I know that there is a lot of news to digest these days….but today is the anniversary of the dastardly attack on the US by those barbarians in AQ……the 9/11 attacks.

My friend Kim had a good post today……https://cadburypom.wordpress.com/2020/09/11/9-11-19th-anniversary/

It seems that most Americans are too self-adsorb to notice any more….unless it somehow benefits them personally.  So let me take you through a few things that you may not know about the attacks………

Monday marks the anniversary of the terrorist attacks on Sept. 11, 2001, that killed 2,977 people in New York, the Pentagon and in a field in rural Pennsylvania. The attacks and the reaction to them have shaped U.S. policy for more than 15 years, leaving a nation that is far more vigilant and jittery about terrorism. Yet for all of the talk about 9/11, many elements of the attacks and the actions leading up to them have receded from the public memory. Here are 10 things you may have forgotten about 9/11:

https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2016/09/10/10-things-you-may-have-forgotten-911/90007376/

There are things that changed after then attacks of  9/11……

We deported half the number of people we do today. Our surveillance state was a fraction of its current size. And — perhaps hardest to believe — we didn’t have to take off our shoes to go through airport security.

America’s involvement in the War on Terror — prompted by the 9/11 terrorist attacks — resulted in a dramatic change in our nation’s attitudes and concerns about safety, vigilance and privacy.

It ushered in a new generation of policies like the USA Patriot Act,  prioritizing national security and defense, often at the expense of civil liberties.

These changes continue to have ripple effects across the globe, particularly in the Middle East, where American-led military operations helped foment rebellions and ongoing warfare throughout the region.

Below are four of the many dramatic impacts — nationwide and in California — resulting from the events of that one tragic day.

https://www.kqed.org/lowdown/14066/13-years-later-four-major-lasting-impacts-of-911

Our lives changed and not for the better…..our lives became more militaristic….and the world became a more dangerous place.

Please take a moment to remember those who died on 9/11.

I Read, I Write, You Know

“lego ergo scribo”

Why Are Saudis Our Friend?

I keep asking this question with little information that would state firmly that they are our friends…..it is a question I have asked many times and as of yet have NO good answer why it is assumed that they are our friends.

That is the question….I mean there is still a chance that they knew about the attack on 9/11….but that aside look no further back than the attack in Pensacola last year…..

In December of last year, the United States suffered the first deadly, internationally orchestrated terrorist attack on its soil since 9/11 — when a Saudi Air Force trainee killed three US sailors and wounded eight others at a Navy air base in Pensacola, FL.

Last week, the FBI and Attorney General William Barr announced that data recovered from the cellphone of the perpetrator further confirms that the mass shooting was an act of terrorism, and that the gunman had ties to al-Qaeda. Was this a discrete act committed in the name of a rogue terrorist organization — or an extension of long-standing Saudi state policy?

The Terrorist Threat Concealed by Saudi ‘Soft Power’

The US NEVER needed the Saudis even at the height of the oil boom……and now we are beholden to them for so much…..

he U.S.-Saudi relationship has been badly weakened over the last few years, and it seems as if there are new reasons for ending that relationship every week. Saudi war crimes in Yemen and the murder of Jamal Khashoggi served to turn much of Washington against the kingdom, and their reckless foreign policy has given even some of their regular supporters cause for alarm. The Saudi crown prince Mohammed bin Salman has done a remarkable job of burning his bridges with even the most reliable pro-Saudi hawks in Washington.

The Saudis’ ill-advised oil price war this spring alienated many of their few remaining allies on Capitol Hill, and it prompted a rare threat from the Trump administration that the U.S. would cut off military support to the kingdom unless Saudi oil production was reduced. Three years of impunity and constant indulgence of his many other crimes probably made the crown prince believe that he could do whatever he wanted without suffering consequences, but once again he misjudged and overreached.

America’s Saudi Partnership Is Now Killing Americans

Now I need to answer my question….why are the Saudis our friend?

MONEY!  There is your answer.

This article can explain the relationship expertly……

The Trump Administration has sent a notification to Congress confirming plans to sell $500 million in weapons to Saudi Arabia in an upcoming round of sales. The plan would include sales of Paveway bombs to the Saudis, and licenses to Raytheon to let them manufacture the bombs directly in Saudi Arabia.

These bombs are part of a 2019 deal in which the Saudis intend to buy 60,000 precision munitions. The deal has continued to face heavy resistance in Congress, in no small part because the Saudis have been committing war crimes with these US-made arms.

Concerns about US culpability in having provided these arms were compounded with the Saudi assassination of journalist Jamal Khashoggi, which fueled a substantial political backlash. So far, the Trump Administration has resisted letting Congress block any sales, but each announcement starts the battle anew.

Large sales of arms to the Middle East have been a high priority for years for US presidents, and that push looks likely to continue until Congress finally gets enough resistance in the way to force a rethink of the wisdom of heavily arming nations in war-torn parts of the world.

(antiwar.com)

The religious ideology of KSA is the same ideology that emboldens al-Qaeda and ISIS….what part of that is friendly toward the US?

I Read, I Write, You Know

“lego ergo scribo”

 

OOPS! Saudi Cat’s Out Of The Bag

It appears as if the FBI accidentally (wink wink) let the name of a top Saudi governmental official associated with the 9/11 conspirators…..I have always felt the Saudis knew more than they would admit…..

Ever hear of a Mussaed Ahmed al-Jarrah?

Probably not….he was a Saudi assigned to the embassy in DC in charge of mosques and such in the US….

The reference is to Mussaed Ahmed al-Jarrah, a mid-level Saudi Foreign Ministry official who was assigned to the Saudi Embassy in Washington, D.C., in 1999 and 2000. His duties apparently included overseeing the activities of Ministry of Islamic Affairs employees at Saudi-funded mosques and Islamic centers within the United States.

Relatively little is known about Jarrah, but according to former embassy employees, he reported to the Saudi ambassador in the United States (at the time Prince Bandar), and that he was later reassigned to the Saudi missions in Malaysia and Morocco, where he is believed to have served as recently as last year.

Jarrah has been on the radar screen of the lawyers for the 9/11 families for some time and is among nine current or former Saudi officials who they suspect have important information about the case and have sought to either question them or get access to FBI documents that mention them.

https://news.yahoo.com/in-court-filing-fbi-accidentally-reveals-name-of-saudi-official-suspected-of-directing-support-for-911-hijackers-224555851.html

This is the declaration to the SDNY on this subject…..

I do not subscribe to many conspiracies but I do think there is some validity in those ideas that the Saudis knew full well what these hijackers were doing and what their targets were…..

Please check out the full story……then tell me what you think…..

Learn Stuff!

I Read, I Write, You Know

“lego ergo scribo”