Does Terrorism Work?

From time to time I get papers written by grad students…..and the interesting ones I try to share with the readers IST…..

Just a few short years ago terrorism was all the buzz….today not so much……

Does terrorism work?

That is the question for the ages.

Some will say it does not….while others may disagree…..

This paper takes a look at the question…..

Terrorism is one of the most widely discussed issues in the twenty-first century due to the increasing terrorist occurrences and its destructive impacts, especially since the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. Terrorist incidences in the world reached its peak in 2014 with about 16,903 attacks leading to 32,658 fatalities (Global Terrorism Index, 2015). However, there was a fifty-two per cent reduction in the number of deaths associated with terrorist incidences in 2018 compared to 2014 (Global Terrorism Index, 2019). While there is a decline in the number of deaths attributed to terrorism, its impact remains prevalent. For instance, there is an upsurge in the number of countries that experienced terrorism in 2018 with at least one causality from seventy-one countries, which is the second highest in the past twenty years (Global Terrorism Index, 2019). The increasing nature of terrorist attacks has led to the intensification of scholarly interest in terrorism and terrorism-related issues. To this end, prior research has examined the definitions, causes, effects and strategies used by terrorist groups (Halliday, 2001; John, 2014; Elu and Gregory, 2015). However, it seems that the few studies that have examined the effectiveness of terrorism as a means of political struggle have been inconclusive.

In order to understand the reason for the continued existence of terrorism and its proliferation, it is crucial to examine if terrorism works, that is, if it achieves its stated objectives. This essay will contribute to the ongoing discussion on the effectiveness of terrorism by arguing that the answer to the question “Does terrorism work?” depends on our definition of “terrorism” and “work”. These concepts are a subject of debate, and as a result, there may not be one formula for measuring whether terrorism is effective. Thus, the success-level of terrorism is determined by various factors, especially by how it is evaluated. For example, while Dershowitz (2002:13) understands success in terms of attracting media attention and securing temporal concessions, Abrahms (2006:51) perceives it as the achievement the organisation’s central strategic objectives. Consequently, this essay will contend that although terrorist organisations rarely achieve their strategic goals, they often succeed in the achievement of other objectives.

Does Terrorism Work?

You tell me…does terrorism work?

I Read, I Write, You Know

“lego ergo scribo”

How Goes The War On Terror?

We are entering our 20th year of the War On Terror….after a trillion dollars I ask….how goes the War on Terror?

Let’s look at the costs…..

The War on Terror is a military campaign launched by President George W. Bush in response to the al-Qaida 9/11 terrorist attacks. It includes the Afghanistan War and the War in Iraq, and it added $2.4 trillion to the debt as of the FY 2020 budget.

the financial cost of the war on terror

Think about what that kind of cash could do for the people of this country.

But sadly the road of war has few exit ramps.

War on Terror has added nearly $2 trillion, or more than 35%, to the U.S. debt.  It also raises the U.S. budget deficit. Defense spending is such a big chunk of the budget that there is no realistic way to reduce either without cutting it.

Here is a look at the War On Terror…..https://original.antiwar.com/scott/2021/03/02/hows-the-war-on-terrorism-going/

Keep in mind that the War on Terror  is not limited to Afghanistan and Iraq and to a smaller extent Syria….it is being “fought” in some 80 countries.

Let’s not forget the over 800,000 people who have been victims of the War on Terror….

I think it is time to declare victory and pull our troops away from the insanity and to place the War On Terror in the dust bin of history.

And I am not alone…..the Austrian Economics Center agrees…..

It’s amazing how we can become numb to circumstances with the passing of time. The U.S.-led War on Terror is nearing its twentieth year with no clear end in sight. Indeed, to many average people in the West, the perpetual violence of the War on Terrorism has become normal, and we have become indifferent.

America bombing and invading the Middle East has become a dark cliché. Nobody bats an eye. There are so many facets, so many groups, and countries involved, and so many interconnected moving parts that it’s perfectly understandable to throw your hands up and accept this whole dizzying headache as just the way things are and always will be, forever.

https://www.austriancenter.com/time-to-end-the-war-on-terror/

Let’s end this insanity!

What say you?

Be Smart!

Learn Stuff!

I Read, I Write, You Know

“lego ergo scribo”

Closing Thought–22Jan21

Why would an American soldier want to destroy the memorial to those that died on 9/11?

I know with everything happening around the inauguration of Biden some news falls by the wayside…..

While we were distracted by the oath of office and the antics of the Trump supporters an American soldier has planned an attack on a national monument…..the 9/11 Monument.

An American soldier discussed targets for potential terror attacks in the United States and shared instructions for killing American troops in the Middle East with someone he believed was an Islamic State supporter, federal authorities said on Tuesday.

While stationed in Germany last fall, the soldier discussed possible targets, including the National September 11 Memorial & Museum in Lower Manhattan, a criminal complaint shows.

“Choose your targets wisely,” the soldier, Cole James Bridges, an Army private from Ohio, wrote to the person he believed was a woman working with the Islamic State. But it turned out that Private Bridges was messaging with an undercover employee of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, according to the complaint, which was made public on Tuesday by federal prosecutors in Manhattan.

Why would any American want to destroy this monument to the dead?  Especially an American soldier that has taken the oath to protect and defend.

I have noticed that oaths do not mean a thing any more….people take them because the have to not because they want to.

This plan is disgusting and should not be condoned or explained away…..punish the planner.

I Read, I Write, You Know

“lego ergo scribo”

 

Make It Go Bang!

By now everyone has heard about the moron that blew up himself and his RV in Nashville. The thing is this person is handled with kid gloves in the media (at least that is how it appears)…..my question is….WHY?

The Nashville narrative is pretty clear: Authorities say Anthony Quinn Warner packed his RV with explosives and blew it and himself up on Christmas while parked downtown. He was, by the most basic definition of the term, a suicide bomber. And yet you’d be hard-pressed to find the phrase in media coverage, writes Danielle Campoamor at Refinery29. The same applies to “domestic terrorist.” Campoamor calls out “legacy publications” in general for avoiding the terminology, particularly the New York Times and the local Tennessean, which is part of Gannett. Instead of being called a suicide bomber or a domestic terrorist, Quinn is being described as a lonely, older white guy. If he were Black or brown, he wouldn’t be getting the same treatment, writes Campoamor. She notes that this Times article in particular set off a backlash among critics like her.

“Editors and political talking heads dragging their feet to name a white domestic terrorist accordingly is hardly new,” she writes. Men like those recently accused of plotting to kidnap Michigan’s governor usually are instead described as “militia” members or “watchmen.” Campoamor isn’t the only calling attention to this. “If a bomber commits suicide with a bomb wouldn’t you call that person a suicide bomber?” tweets Molly Jong-Fast of the Daily Beast. The problem goes beyond media semantics, writes Campamor, pointing as an example to the way hate crimes against Muslims spike after an attack by someone claiming to be one. “This refusal to hold white men to the same standard—to the same level of villainization—plays a large part in the culture of hate crimes that runs rampant in America,” Campamor notes. (Read her full column.)

Why was this white guy a lonely man with mental problems?

I do not think a black or brown person would have gotten such favorable treatment….they would have been thugs or terrorists.

What gave this demented person the benefit of the doubt when others are not so lucky?

Question….answer?

I Read, I Write, You Know

“lego ergo scribo”

Tragic Christmas Surprise

While must of us were preparing for one of our big days…tragedy struck in the city of Nashville…..

An explosion shook the largely deserted streets of downtown Nashville early Christmas morning, shattering windows, damaging buildings, and wounding three people, per the AP. Authorities said they believed the blast was intentional, and the FBI is leading the investigation. Police spokesman Don Aaron said the 6:30am explosion was believed to be “an intentional act,” though no further details were provided. Police earlier said they believe a vehicle was involved in the explosion. Aaron said three people were taken to area hospitals for treatment, although none were in critical condition. The Metro Nashville Office of Emergency Management told WKRN that a parked recreational vehicle exploded and damaged several buildings.

Black smoke and flames were seen early Friday billowing from the area, which is packed with bars, restaurants, and other retail establishments and is known as the heart of downtown Nashville’s tourist scene. Buildings shook in the immediate area and beyond after a loud boom was heard. “All my windows, every single one of them got blown into the next room. If I had been standing there it would have been horrible,” said Buck McCoy, who lives near the area. “It felt like a bomb. It was that big.”

This report was updated while it sat in my draft queue……..

A strange new twist has developed in regard to the explosion that rocked downtown Nashville on Christmas morning. Police and witnesses say a recreational vehicle broadcast warnings that a bomb was in the vehicle and counted down a 15-minute warning before the explosion, reports the Tennessean. As of Friday afternoon, three people were hospitalized with non-life-threatening injuries as authorities led by the FBI try to figure out what happened. Coverage:

  • The start: Police responded to a call of shots fired about 6am and discovered the “suspicious” RV parked on a street, reports the Washington Post. The bomb squad was en route when the explosion occurred about 6:30am, per the AP.
  • Warnings: Witnesses heard this coming from the RV: “Evacuate now. There is a bomb. A bomb is in this vehicle and will explode,” according to the Tennessean. Then a 15-minute countdown began. “Whoever did it did gave fair warning,” says Betsy Williams, owner of the nearby Melting Pot restaurant. She and her family also live in the building, and they evacuated in their pajamas. Williams says she thinks the RV showed up Thursday night.
  • Questions: Authorities don’t know if anyone was in the RV when it exploded. Nor have they speculated on a possible motive. “We do believe this to have been an intentional act,” says police spokesman Don Aaron said. “Significant damage has been done to the infrastructure there on 2nd Avenue North.” CNN quotes a law enforcement source who says there were no known threats about a Christmas strike among extremist groups.
  • A promise: “We will find out who did this,” Special Agent in Charge Matt Foster of the FBI said at an afternoon news conference. “This is our city, too. We’re putting everything we have into finding who was responsible for what happened here today.” President Trump has been briefed, reports WKRN.
  • Dog walker: Police began knocking on doors and telling people to evacuate in the minutes before the blast. One man walking his dog was directed away from the site moments before the explosion, notes the Post.
  • Damage: It will take time to assess, but several buildings sustained structural damage, and photos showed destroyed cars, scattered glass, broken water mains, and shards of metal strewn everywhere. “It looks like a bomb went off,” says Mayor John Cooper

Of course this will be a continuing story until the conclusion and arrests are made.

Barbaric!

All involved should be punished and punished severely……

I Read, I Write, You Know

“lego ergo scribo”

Closing Thought–23Dec20

Some troubling news for the holidays……

I know we have not heard much from those barbaric pricks of AQ and ISIS….but a report is starting circulate that these groups could be planning something big for the holiday season….

Aimen Dean, a former Al Qaeda bombmaker turned spy for the U.K.’s MI6 spy agency, is warning that the Islamic State (ISIS) terror group is preparing a wave of attacks in Britain, France, and Germany ahead of Christmas.

Dean said ISIS commander Abu Omar al-Shishani is planning to send attackers to Europe through Turkey and across the Mediterranean from North Africa, The Daily Mail reported. Speaking at the International Security Week conference, which ran from Nov. 30 to Dec. 3, Dean said Shishani is primarily motivated to attack the countries over recent incidents in which depictions of the prophet Muhammad have been shared, in violation of some Islamic practices.

“The worry is that, according to people who know him, [Shishani] is planning to avenge the Prophet Mohammed cartoons in places like Germany, UK, France and all around Christmas time,” Dean said. “I’m afraid I’m not bearing good news but we need to be worried about the wave of terror that is coming from northern Syria and Libya for Christmas this year,” Dean said.

Dean derives his expertise from working as a bomb-maker for Al Qaeda and then informing on the group for eight years, the Daily Mail reported.

Dean raised a particular warning that European leaders trying to lift coronavirus related lockdowns around the Christmas holiday are only further enticing the terrorist plotters.

“This promise of no lockdown at Christmas has made it a more attractive time frame for targeting,” Dean said. “Already they have been thinking about it, already they have been looking at it and I feel this will be the next target.”

source:  American Military News

Not a surprise…but this info should be more readily available to the public…..

Learn Stuff!

I Read, I Write, You Know

“lego ergo scribo”

Russia Or Fu Manchu?

I admit that in my younger days I was a huge Sax Rohmer fan and his arch villain Fu Manchu….I even have been watching an old TV show entitled the “The Adventures Of Dr. Fu Manchu” from 1956….one episode has the evil genius hacking into the NORAD-like defense system…..and I thought about it when I read about the latest hack in the news…..

An alarming development in the massive cyberattack on American government systems: Sources tell Politico that the agencies that maintain America’s nuclear weapons stockpile were compromised in the attack, which is strongly suspected to have been carried out by Russia. The sources say they have found evidence that hackers accessed the networks of the Energy Department and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The worst damage was done at the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), where there is evidence of “highly malicious activity,” the officials say. The hackers are believed to have accessed systems from March onwards by compromising a SolarWinds software patch. More:

  • Department says critical defense systems not hit. Energy Department spokeswoman Shaylyn Hynes confirmed that the department had been hit by the attack but denied parts of the Politico report. “At this point, the investigation has found that the malware has been isolated to business networks only, and has not impacted the mission essential national security functions of the department, including the National Nuclear Security Administration,” Hynes said in a statement. Hynes said that when vulnerable software was identified, “immediate action was taken to mitigate the risk.”
  • What Politico details: In addition to FERC, it reports the DOE and NNSA have uncovered evidence of hacking in the networks used by the Sandia and Los Alamos national labs and the Office of Secure Transportation at NNSA. Politico explains: “NNSA is responsible for managing the nation’s nuclear weapons, and while it gets the least attention, it takes up the vast majority of DOE’s budget.” Enriched uranium is moved by the Office of Secure Transportation, and the labs handle atomic research tied to both nuclear power and nuclear weapons.
  • “Grave threat” to critical infrastructure. The Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) warned that the attack poses a “grave threat” to “critical infrastructure,” Deutsche Welle reports. The agency said the damage will be very difficult to undo. CISA didn’t specify what the critical infrastructure is, but the AP offers this: “Homeland Security, the agency’s parent department, defines such infrastructure as any ‘vital’ assets to the US or its economy, a broad category that could include power plants and financial institutions.”
  • Private sector was also hit. “It’s still early days, but we have already identified 40 victims—more than anyone else has stated so far—and believe that number should rise substantially,” Microsoft president Brad Smith tells the New York Times. “There are more nongovernmental victims than there are governmental victims, with a big focus on IT companies, especially in the security industry.” Microsoft says a “heat map” of the attack shows that 80% of victims are in the US, with others in countries including the UK, Mexico, and Spain—but none in Russia.
  • Biden speaks out. President-elect Joe Biden vowed Thursday that he would make dealing with the attack a top priority from the moment he takes office, the BBC reports. “We need to disrupt and deter our adversaries from undertaking significant cyberattacks in the first place,” he said. “We will do that by, among other things, imposing substantial costs on those responsible for such malicious attacks, including in coordination with our allies and partners.” President Trump has not commented publicly on the attacks.
  • “Worst hacking case in US history.” A government official speaking to the AP on condition of anonymity says the administration isn’t ready to publicly blame Russia for the cyberattack. “This is looking like it’s the worst hacking case in the history of America,” the official says. “They got into everything.” Experts believe the attackers focused on espionage, not sabotage, and were incredibly successful.
  • Romney: “Stunning” for White House not to respond. Republican Sen. Mitt Romney said Thursday that the silence and apparent lack of action from the White House was “inexcusable,” the Hill reports. “I think the White House needs to say something aggressive about what happened,” he said. “This is almost as if you had a Russian bomber flying undetected over the country, including over the nation’s capital, and not to respond in a setting like that is really stunning.”

This ‘hack’ is another attack that I am struggling with….it seems when we need a foe the Russian hacks are always available.

Fu Manchu was thwarted…..but looks like the Russians (allegedly) are more sophisticated….

I am waiting for the rest of the story…..and now I have it….

The Trump administration informed Congress of its plans to close the last two US consulates in Russia, leaving the US embassy in Moscow as the only US diplomatic mission in the country.

The State Department sent a letter to congressional leaders on December 10th that said the US is permanently closing its consulate in Vladivostok, and temporarily halting operations at the consulate in Yekaterinburg.

According to the letter, the US is shuttering the consulates due to caps set by Moscow on the number of diplomats allowed in the country. In 2017, Russian President Vladimir Putin set new limits on the number of US diplomatic employees in response to US sanctions.

The letter says the move is “in response to ongoing staffing challenges of the US Mission in Russia in the wake of the 2017 Russian-imposed personnel cap on the US Mission and resultant impasse with Russia over diplomatic visas.”

In December 2016, then-President Barack Obama expelled 35 Russian diplomats for Moscow’s alleged interference in the presidential election, which was never substantiated. Putin chose not to retaliate against Obama’s move.

The news comes at a sensitive time for US-Russia relations. Several US government agencies were targeted in a major cyberattack that many in the US are blaming on Russia, despite a lack of evidence to show Moscow was involved.

But the shuttering of the consulates does not appear to be connected to the cyberattack since the administration informed Congress a few days before the hack was reported.

(antiwar.com)

As to appear not be the gutless wonders they are…Congress is calling for retaliation…..Some senators are calling for retaliation against Russia. Senator Dick Durbin (D-IL) even likened it to a “virtual invasion.” (chest thumping only)

On a lighter note…..

If I peeked your interest in Fu Manchu….here are the 8 episodes from 1956…..(if interested I believe it was episode 3 or 4 that had the “hack”)

While your are finishing your shopping…..Be Well and Be Safe……

I Read, I Write, You Know

“lego ergo scribo”

Pan Am Flight 103

Does anyone remember this tragedy?

No?

How about the Lockerbie bombing?

Still nothing?

On December 21, 1988, on a cold and ultimately chilling evening just four days before Christmas, Pan Am Flight 103 took off from London’s Heathrow Airport bound for New York City. Among the 259 passengers and crew were 189 Americans.

They never made it home. Less than 40 minutes into the flight, the plane exploded over the sky above Lockerbie, Scotland, killing everyone on board and 11 Scots on the ground.

Until 9/11, it was one of the world’s most lethal acts of air terrorism and one of the largest and most complex acts of international terrorism ever investigated by the FBI.

Solving the case required unprecedented international cooperation—and hours upon hours of painstaking work. With the mid-air explosion 30,000 feet up, debris rained down over 845 square miles across Scotland. FBI agents and international investigators combed the countryside on hands and knees looking for clues in virtually every blade of grass, eventually turning up thousands of pieces of evidence. They also traversed the globe, interviewing more than 10,000 individuals in dozens of countries.

Participating in the investigation were an array of international police organizations from such countries as Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and, of course, Great Britain (including Scotland).

Ultimately, forensic specialists from the FBI, the CIA, and elsewhere determined that one of the fragments found on the ground, no bigger than a thumbnail, came from the circuit board of a radio/cassette player. That tiny piece of evidence helped establish that the bomb had been placed inside that radio and tape deck in a piece of luggage. Another small fragment, found embedded in a piece of shirt, helped identify the type of timer.

https://www.fbi.gov/history/famous-cases/pan-am-103-bombing

The family of the person convicted of the bombing has asked for the evidence and documents to be made public……

The family of the only person convicted in the deadliest terror attack in British history say documents held by the UK government could clear his name—but the government is refusing to unseal them. Scotland’s most senior judges have ruled to uphold the secrecy order for documents connected to the 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland, which killed 270 people, the Guardian reports. Earlier this year, the family of former Libyan intelligence officer Abdelbaset al-Megrahi, who died in 2012, was granted permission to posthumously appeal his conviction. They say the secret papers will prove that the bombing was actually carried out by a Syria-based extremist group called the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, acting on orders from Iran.

The documents, which allegedly name a Jordanian intelligence agent as the bomb-maker, are believed to have been sent by King Hussein of Jordan, per the Guardian. When he issued the order protecting the documents, UK Foreign Secretary Dominic Raab said releasing them to the defense would harm national security, the National reports. “The documents were provided in confidence to the United Kingdom Government by another state,” Raab said. “Disclosure of the documents would harm the United Kingdom’s international relations with that state.” In a 2007 ruling, however, the Scottish Criminal Cases Review Commission said the documents raised questions about al-Megrahi’s conviction. His appeal at the time was abandoned before he was released on compassionate grounds in 2009.

Let me insert this before the question I have.

I am by no means saying this person was innocent of the crime….just that there are some questions on the decision to keep info classified.

Now I asked if there was a trial and a person convicted of the crime….why are these documents still secret?

What are they protecting?

Was the person railroaded?

Why not make the information public and let everyone see the evidence?

I Read, I Write, You Know

“lego ergo scribo”

War On Terror

I remember after the 9/11 attacks and the beginning of the War on Terror…..do you?

The question was posed….are we better off today than we were in 2001?

$6 trillion (that is trillion with a “T”) and the answer in most quarters is ….NO!

After all these years…the ordinances used and the people lost and we are not any better off?

But the M-IC is pushing hard to keep troops around the world as a deterrent to terrorism….is it really worth the cost….in lives and equipment?

The national security establishment is pushing against the withdrawal of American forces from Afghanistan by President Trump following almost two decades of combat. Even Republicans are warning Trump that he is repeating one of the foreign policy mistakes of Barack Obama.

One of the most astonishing recent arguments against a withdrawal from Afghanistan was made by former national security adviser H.R. McMaster, who said that terrorist groups that “pose a threat to us are stronger now” than they were before 9/11. He said the United States faces Al Qaeda and Islamic State alumni who are “orders of magnitude greater” than before and who “have access to much more destructive capabilities.”

How are we worse off than 2001? According to the Watson Institute, the war on terror has cost the United States over $6 trillion, 800,000 people have died as a direct result of the violence of these conflicts, and nearly 38 million people have been displaced or made refugees. According to the Washington Post, some 775,000 American forces have been sent to Afghanistan since 2001, and more than 2,000 of them died.

The United States poured billions of dollars into reconstruction projects in Iraq and Afghanistan under the notion that economic development would check the growth of terrorism. Yet after all this blood and treasure, one of the most senior American officials and a former combat general in the war on terror says Al Qaeda is stronger than it was before 9/11.

https://thehill.com/opinion/national-security/518204-the-truth-about-the-war-on-terror

Let’s look at another one of those made up wars that has done little…..the War On Drugs.

By contrast that “war” has been raging for damn near 50 years and about $1 trillion wasted with no end in sight….we just keep wasting money chasing some imaginary victory.

In my opinion and others as well…the War on Terror has wasted lives and money and has not accomplished a victory after $6 trillion (that is trillion with a “T”)…..

Learn Stuff!

I Read, I Write, You Know

“lego ergo scribo”

Least We Forget

Closing Thought–11Sep20

I know that there is a lot of news to digest these days….but today is the anniversary of the dastardly attack on the US by those barbarians in AQ……the 9/11 attacks.

My friend Kim had a good post today……https://cadburypom.wordpress.com/2020/09/11/9-11-19th-anniversary/

It seems that most Americans are too self-adsorb to notice any more….unless it somehow benefits them personally.  So let me take you through a few things that you may not know about the attacks………

Monday marks the anniversary of the terrorist attacks on Sept. 11, 2001, that killed 2,977 people in New York, the Pentagon and in a field in rural Pennsylvania. The attacks and the reaction to them have shaped U.S. policy for more than 15 years, leaving a nation that is far more vigilant and jittery about terrorism. Yet for all of the talk about 9/11, many elements of the attacks and the actions leading up to them have receded from the public memory. Here are 10 things you may have forgotten about 9/11:

https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2016/09/10/10-things-you-may-have-forgotten-911/90007376/

There are things that changed after then attacks of  9/11……

We deported half the number of people we do today. Our surveillance state was a fraction of its current size. And — perhaps hardest to believe — we didn’t have to take off our shoes to go through airport security.

America’s involvement in the War on Terror — prompted by the 9/11 terrorist attacks — resulted in a dramatic change in our nation’s attitudes and concerns about safety, vigilance and privacy.

It ushered in a new generation of policies like the USA Patriot Act,  prioritizing national security and defense, often at the expense of civil liberties.

These changes continue to have ripple effects across the globe, particularly in the Middle East, where American-led military operations helped foment rebellions and ongoing warfare throughout the region.

Below are four of the many dramatic impacts — nationwide and in California — resulting from the events of that one tragic day.

https://www.kqed.org/lowdown/14066/13-years-later-four-major-lasting-impacts-of-911

Our lives changed and not for the better…..our lives became more militaristic….and the world became a more dangerous place.

Please take a moment to remember those who died on 9/11.

I Read, I Write, You Know

“lego ergo scribo”