Making America(n History) Great Again–Part 38

I have been posting a series written by Maj. Danny Sjursen and this is the final part of the historic perspective.

Maj. Danny has taken the reader from the very early days to the present……

For all the readers and visitors that are interested in his entire series I give you the series by Maj. Sursen…..

Part 1; Part 2; Part 3; Part 4; Part 5; Part 6; Part 7; Part 8; Part 9; Part 10; Part 11; Part 12; Part 13; Part 14; Part 15; Part 16; Part 17; Part 18; Part 19; Part 20; Part 21; Part 22; Part 23; Part 24; Part 25; Part 26; Part 27; Part 28; Part 29; Part 30; Part 31; Part 32; Part 33; Part 34; Part 35; Part 36; Part 37.

This part is the final episode and it takes into consideration the world of today…..

There is a widespread belief that American history is best viewed in a linear context. The United States, the narrative goes, began as a flawed experiment in democracy—replete with slavery and bigotry at the start—but has gradually and consistently improved into a more perfect union, a millenarian nation on its way toward serving as an example for the world, a “city on a hill.” Minorities, according to this notion, may have once been oppressed but have gained equal rights and equal protection under the law; America might have conquered Indian and Mexican land but has long since set aside its imperial ways. As such, both at home and abroad, the U.S., though still imperfect, is a force for good in the world.

Progress, such as it is, has been wildly inconsistent and halting since the Anglo colonization of the eastern coast of North America. Take the plight of African-Americans. Theirs has been a history of false starts, dreams deferred and hopes enlivened only to be dashed. Consider, for example, that more blacks were U.S. House members and senators in 1877 than in 1967. In the wake of the Civil War, the reforms of Reconstruction launched African-Americans into positions of power they would not regain for nearly a century. During this time, Northern whites abandoned them to the whims of Southern bigots, and the result was Jim Crow—systemic segregation, a parallel apartheid system in the American South. A further example is that blacks finally saw their voting rights protected by the 1965 Voting Rights Act—which required the federal government to carefully review electoral procedures in the former Confederate states—only to find many of those protections stripped away by a reactionary Supreme Court early in the 21st century. Clearly, there’s very little that is progressive or linear in the journey of black Americans.

American History for Truthdiggers: A Once, Always and Future Empire

The “Bright City on the Hill” of Reagan fame is just a slogan and an outright lie….but that matters not to most Americans….nothing about history matters to most Americans.

This is an excellent series and every person interested in American history should read and learn.

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29 October In History

The year is 539 BC……Persian king Cyrus the Great conquers Babylon and frees the Hebrew slaves and allows them to return to their homeland……but that is not important for we hate Iran (Persia)…..

But what happened here in the good old U.S. of A.?

Does anyone know what happen 90 years ago today?  (Of course you don’t for it does not concern you)……

……..I will wait while the Google machine gets a work out…….

It was called “Black Tuesday”….does that help?

The great Stock Market Crash of 1929 and the beginning of what would be called the “Great Depression”….a time that changed much here in the US.

On October 29, 1929, Black Tuesday hit Wall Street as investors traded some 16 million shares on the New York Stock Exchange in a single day. Billions of dollars were lost, wiping out thousands of investors. In the aftermath of Black Tuesday, America and the rest of the industrialized world spiraled downward into the Great Depression (1929-39), the deepest and longest-lasting economic downturn in the history of the Western industrialized world up to that time.

https://www.history.com/topics/great-depression/1929-stock-market-crash

Let us look closely at what happened that caused this “crash”?

The stock market crash of 1929 – considered the worst economic event in world history – began on Thursday, October 24, 1929, with skittish investors trading a record 12.9 million shares. On October 28, dubbed “Black Monday,” the Dow Jones Industrial Average plunged nearly 13 percent. The market fell another 12 percent the next day, “Black Tuesday.” While the crisis send shock waves across the financial world, there were numerous signs that a stock market crash was coming. What exactly caused the crash – and could it have been prevented?

https://www.history.com/news/what-caused-the-stock-market-crash-of-1929

Now we know what happened so the question now is could it happen again?

Few people are alive anymore who remember living through the stock market crash of 1929. But plenty of people still view that fateful plunge as a worst-case scenario for what might befall investors.

The roughly 20% decline for large stocks in October 1929 actually wasn’t the market’s worst month ever, but the drop incited nearly three years of relentless selling and helped to usher in the Great Depression. Could a 1929-style market setback happen again?

Yes, it could.

https://www.azcentral.com/story/money/business/economy/2019/10/13/stock-market-crash-october-1929-great-depression-economic-downturn/3910471002/

More thoughts on the possibility of the Crash happening again…..https://www.washingtonpolicy.org/publications/detail/the-crash-of-1929-could-it-happen-again

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2019–Psi Phi Society–Fall Session

A Psi Phi (ΨΦ) Society–Fall Session–2019……the meeting was at the usual place with 5 members in attendance….

The Land Of Firsts

I can remember when the Middle East was seldom in the news….those days I was studying in university in subject I did not realize would become so important to the discourse.

Let us look at the region we call the Middle East…..a region rich in history and tradition.

So many of history’s firsts were invented in this region…..written word and math……

The Sumerian civilization (known also as Sumer) was one of the earliest civilizations in the world. This ancient civilization emerged in the region of southern Mesopotamia (modern day southern Iraq), between the Tigris and Euphrates River. The Sumerian civilization began around the 4th millennium BC and ended around the 24th century BC, when the whole of Mesopotamia came under the control of the Akkadian Empire .

The Sumerians re-emerged during the 22nd century BC and ruled southern Mesopotamia once more. The Third Dynasty of Ur that they established, however, did not last for long and fell after about a century. Although Sumerian dominance in Mesopotamia ended definitively this time, its numerous innovations benefitted subsequent Mesopotamian civilizations , and its legacy can still be felt even today.

https://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-asia/sumerian-civilization-0011932

To begin with the notion of civilization was first tried in the area (there is some dispute of the claim of first) but for the most part I agree with the Fertile Crescent as the “cradle of civilization”….

Sumer, located in Mesopotamia, is the first known complex civilization, developing the first city-states in the 4th millennium BCE.   It was in these cities that the earliest known form of writing, cuneiform script, appeared around 3000 BCE.  Cuneiform writing began as a system of pictographs. These pictorial representations eventually became simplified and more abstract.   Cuneiform texts were written on clay tablets, on which symbols were drawn with a blunt reed used as a stylus.  Writing made the administration of a large state far easier.

These developments led to the rise of territorial states and empires. In Mesopotamia there prevailed a pattern of independent warring city-states and of a loose hegemony shifting from one city to another.

Once civilization is up and running smoothly comes the next step…the first empire…..

pectacular things were happening in Mesopotamia in the period we call the Early Bronze Age, particularly in the southern part of it, commonly called Babylonia. It was here that the wealthy, sophisticated Sumerian civilization developed, its growth and prosperity greatly spurred by the invention of writing. A magnificent assortment of beautifully wrought items, like those unearthed from the so-called royal tombs of Ur and now on display in the British Museum, testifies to the high level of craftsmanship of the Sumerian civilization at its zenith.

In the wake of the Sumerian Early Dynastic period ( 2900–2334 BC), there arose in southern Mesopotamia the first great empire in Near Eastern history—the Akkadian empire ( 2334–2193 BC) founded by Sargon, which at its peak extended through the whole of Mesopotamia, and north-westwards into south-eastern Anatolia. Early Bronze Age Mesopotamia’s archaeological remains and prolific tablet-finds provided rich and exciting fields of investigation for archaeologists, historians, and linguists alike.

https://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-asia/ebla-0011940

Once the empires were established they must be defended….so the first professional armies were found in the Fertile Crescent…..

In 745 BC the Assyrian King, Tiglath-Pileser III, established a standing army…..

However there is some disagreement n the first standing Army……but most agree that it was in the region of the Middle East…..

https://dailyhistory.org/How_did_ancient_Professional_Armies_develop%3F

Once great empires were established then came another first….the first diplomatic correspondence….

The Amarna Letters are a body of 14th century BCE correspondence exchanged between the rulers of the Ancient Near East and Egypt. They are perhaps the earliest examples of international diplomacy while their most common subjects are negotiations of diplomatic marriage, friendship statements and exchanged materials. The name “Amarna Letters” derives from the place where the tablets were found: the ancient city of Akhetaten (built by order of the Pharaoh Akhenaten), but nowadays known as Tell el-Amarna, in Egypt.

They are the first international diplomatic system known to us, i.e. they contain rules, conventions and institutions responsible for communication and negotiation. Although in the early third millennium BCE there was already another form of relationship, this was merely straightforward written communication between Mesopotamia and Syria. With time, this form added some rules, based on necessity and developed the beginning of diplomatic mechanisms, which would culminate in the Amarna system. Thus, diplomacy was created to be used as a tool in the process of creating an empire.

https://www.ancient.eu/Amarna_Letters/

When empires clashed in conflict the results were another first…….Then there was the very first Peace Treaty….between Egypt and the Hittite Empire….

Ramesses II (The Great, 1279-1213 BCE) ruled Egypt for 67 years and, today, the Egyptian landscape still bears testimony to the prosperity of his reign in the many temples and monuments he had built in honor of his conquests and accomplishments. There is virtually no ancient site in Egypt which does not mention the name of Ramesses II and his account of his victory at The Battle of Kadesh in 1274 BCE is legendary. Among his greatest moments as pharaoh, however, is not an act of war but one of peace: the signing of the first peace treaty in history.

While there does exist an earlier treaty, known as the Treaty of Mesilim, between the Mesopotamian cities of Umma and Lagash, dated to 2550 BCE, scholarly consensus rejects this as an actual peace treaty and defines it as a Treaty of Delimitation (meaning a treaty which sets borders or boundaries). Further, as the Treaty of Mesilim is actually a written agreement between the gods of Umma and Lagash, and not between the rulers of the city or those rulers’ representatives, it cannot be considered an actual peace treaty. The Treaty of Kadesh of 1258 BCE, then, holds the distinction as the world’s first peace treaty.

https://www.ancient.eu/article/78/the-battle-of-kadesh–the-first-peace-treaty/

For comparison the Treaty of Mesilim……

According to the museum, the two cities were disputing over a fertile area called Gu’edina or the ‘Edge of the Plain.’ Around 2400 B.C. Enmetena, king of Lagash, had the pillar erected to stake his claim to the territory. Rachel Campbell-Johnston at The Times reports it is likely the earliest written evidence of a border dispute and is also the first time the term “no man’s land” is used.

 
Personally I think the treaty with the Hittites was more a peace  treaty than the Treaty of Mesilim…..but make up your own mind.
 
The next first is the Declaration of the Persian king, Cyrus the Great……on human rights……
In 539 BCE, Persian troops under Cyrus the Great entered the city of Babylon, which they took without encountering any resistance. On 29 October 539 BCE, Cyrus himself entered the city and proclaimed himself “king of Babylon, king of Sumer and Akkad, king of the four corners of the world,” after which he placed the Cyrus Cylinder, the world’s first declaration of human rights, under the walls of Babylon, in the foundations of the temple of Esaglia. The text of the cylinder denounces Babylon’s previous leader, Nabonidus, glorifies Cyrus, and describes how he improved the lives of the people of Babylon. Upon conquering Babylon, Cyrus is said to have proclaimed, “Today, I announce that everyone is free to choose a religion. People are free to live in all regions and take up a job provided that they never violate other’s rights.”
 
This acknowledgement of human rights and freedom of religion—made more than 2,500 years ago by perhaps the most powerful man on Earth at the time—was an astounding example of benevolence, tolerance, and mercy. True to his word, Cyrus respected the customs and religions of the lands he conquered. Upon conquering Babylon, he is said to have freed the Jews there from captivity.  (You would think that the Israelis would celebrate this…after all they celebrte a wandering for 40 years in a desert)
 
The Next “First” was a canon of laws…..the Hammurabi Code”…..

Hammurabi was the sixth king in the Babylonian dynasty, which ruled in central Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq) from c. 1894 to 1595 B.C.

His family was descended from the Amorites, a semi-nomadic tribe in western Syria, and his name reflects a mix of cultures: Hammu, which means “family” in Amorite, combined with rapi, meaning “great” in Akkadian, the everyday language of Babylon.

In the 30th year of his reign, Hammurabi began to expand his kingdom up and down the Tigris and Euphrates river valley, overthrowing the kingdoms of Assyria, Larsa, Eshunna and Mari until all of Mesopotamia was under his sway.

The first ten laws of the “code”……
 
1. If a man commits a murder, that man must be killed.
2. If a man commits a robbery, he will be killed.
3. If a man commits a kidnapping, he is to be imprisoned and pay 15 shekels of silver.
4. If a slave marries a slave, and that slave is set free, he does not leave the household.
5. If a slave marries a native (i.e. free) person, he/she is to hand the firstborn son over to his owner.
6. If a man violates the right of another and deflowers the virgin wife of a young man, they shall kill that male.
7. If the wife of a man followed after another man and he slept with her, they shall slay that woman, but that male shall be set free.
8. If a man proceeded by force, and deflowered the virgin slavewoman of another man, that man must pay five shekels of silver.
9. If a man divorces his first-time wife, he shall pay her one mina of silver.
10. If it is a (former) widow whom he divorces, he shall pay her half a mina of silver.
 
Then there is the science and technology firsts…….
 
  • The Wheel
  • The Sail
  • Writing
  • The Corbeled Arch/True Arch
  • Irrigation and Farming Implements
  • Cities
  • Maps
  • Mathematics
  • Time and Clocks
  • Astronomy and Astrology
  • Medicinal Drugs and Surgery
 
Fast forward to Islamic Golden Age, 750-1258, and a host of first as well……
 
  • Advancements in mathematics, including the birth of algebra and new insights into geometry and trigonometry.
  • The origins of the scientific method, along with the development of chemistry, physics, and astronomy as discrete fields of inquiry.
  • The invention of the modern “teaching hospital” and a medical encyclopedia that served Europe for the next 600 years.
  • The preservation and translation of the world’s great literature, from the Hadith (or sayings of Muhammad) to the master works of Greece and Rome.
  • Ontological philosophy that served future Jewish, Christian, and Muslim theologians concerned with the nature of God and the relationship between faith and reason.
The region today may be a hot bed of violence and may be it has always been so, as so many believe, but that does not ever diminish the accomplishments of the people of the Middle East.
 
More firsts…the Sumerians lead the way……
The Sumerians were responsible for many of the most important innovations, inventions, and concepts taken for granted in the present day. They essentially “invented” time by dividing day and night into 12-hour periods, hours into 60 minutes, and minutes into 60 seconds. Their other innovations and inventions include the first schools, the earliest version of the tale of the Great Flood and other biblical narratives, the oldest heroic epic, governmental bureaucracy, monumental architecture, and irrigation techniques.
 
This draft was written in September and above article published 09 October……so is someone looking over my shoulder?
 
The meeting let out we had a good talk, good meal and excellent wine…..Winter Session Session TBA…..
 
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Kurdish Massacres

The Kurds are making news….not in a good way but rather as the recipient of yet another betrayal of their trust.

And that gives us a chance to use the “By Back Machine”…….

Set the dial for the year is 1916 the month of May……

In a manner of speaking, the carnage unfolding in Northern Syria is one of Britain’s early 20th century Near Eastern original sins (one of many similar sins across the globe) that bears the Anglo Mark of Cain emblazoned in gory detail in today’s bloodstained Palestinian, Syrian, Kashmiri, Somali, Iraqi, Yemeni, Afghani, and Burmese soils, to name but a few.

Prior to 1917 the exhausted Ottoman Empire’s rule over Syria, Palestine, Jordan, Iraq, and  small swaths of the Arabian Peninsula was losing its grip. The empire was gasping its last breath as a result of The Sick Man of Europe’s involvement in WWI and the hubris that befalls spent empires. Smelling victory at smashing the Triple Entente, Mark Sykes and François George-Picot, British and French diplomats, convened a secret 1916 kleptomaniac meeting to carve up the Ottoman Empire and Arab World into their spheres of influence.

In 1901 huge oil reserves were being discovered in Iraq, Iran, and the Arabian Peninsula, reserves that enticed the ever-ruthless and greedy Brits and French, much like Cain, to covet large expanses of desert which were heretofore merely uninhabitable backwashes.

And 85 years later another superpower, led by Bush the Elder in 1991 and his son, Bush the dumber in 2003, would twice invade Iraq and pulverize it back to the stone-age – all because of oil, that black gold that jaundices moral behavior and justifies covetous Mark of Cain schemes to lay claim to what belongs to others.

Kurdish Massacres: One of Britain’s Many Original Sins

It is understandable for the Kurds to not trust easily….I think the Kurds never fully trusted the US….they did however need our support and weapons and cash….so they threw in with our lot…..

The Kurds are a minority so they will throw in with whoever will give them support…..that was proved when they threw in with an “enemy”, Assad……

Syria’s Kurds said Syrian government forces agreed Sunday to help them fend off Turkey’s invasion — a major shift in alliances that came after President Donald Trump ordered all U.S. troops withdrawn from the northern border area amid the rapidly deepening chaos.

The shift could lead to clashes between Turkey and Syria and raises the specter of a resurgent Islamic State group as the U.S. relinquishes any remaining influence in northern Syria to President Bashar Assad and his chief backer, Russia.

Adding to the turmoil Sunday, hundreds of Islamic State families and supporters escaped from a holding camp in Syria amid the fighting between Turkish forces and the Kurds.

https://www.apnews.com/7e90fd08a89e49d9bcae6a85a131a64a

A quick look at the Kurds in Middle East history, recent history, and a look at the direction they will travel to get what they want.

Pres, Trump has done something that could very well lead to another massacre or two…….

The Turkish ceasefire in Syria that was agreed upon last Thursday is a permanent one, said President Trump Wednesday, and so sanctions against Turkey will be lifted—although he allowed that “you will also define permanent in that part of the world as somewhat questionable,” reports CNBC. CNN quotes him as saying, “I have, therefore, instructed the Secretary of the Treasury to lift all sanctions imposed October 14th in response to Turkey’s original offensive moves against the Kurds.”

The AP adds that Trump also touched on his decision to pull almost all US troops from Syria, saying, “we’re getting out. Let someone else fight over this long blood-stained sand.” The AP lays out the plan going forward, with Turkey overseeing the areas of Syria that it captured during its attack against Kurdish forces; Russia and Syria will oversee the remaining border areas, with the US having “little influence in the region.”

The US leaving the Kurds in a lurch has done one thing…..ended any trust the US had with the Kurds.

This week, as hundreds of ISIS fighters escaped from Kurdish prisons in northeastern Syria following Donald Trump’s decision to pull out American troops, a group of current and former “special operators” for U.S. intelligence met for a previously scheduled casual lunch in Washington.

Their take on Trump’s abandonment of the Kurds—a move that enabled Turkey to invade the region, for Russians to move into former U.S. positions and for extremists to maybe start plotting attacks on Europe again.

https://www.rawstory.com/2019/10/the-kurds-will-never-again-help-the-us-in-the-middle-east-veteran-cia-officer/

But there is a deal between Turkey and Russia…..read the text for yourself….

https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2019/10/full-text-turkey-russia-agreement-northeast-syria-191022180033274.html

Now we have a new set of problems developing…..

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Making American (History) Great Again–Part 37

I have been writing and posting about American history….history that most Americans have never been taught or even thought about…..Maj. Sjursen takes on American history with the passion and the learning that Howard Zinn many years ago.

So far this series has taken the reader through all aspects of American history….from the very beginnings to today……but for those that have not been reading this series all along I will help you get caught up….please take some time and read the history that should be taught….

Part 1; Part 2; Part 3; Part 4; Part 5; Part 6; Part 7; Part 8; Part 9; Part 10; Part 11; Part 12; Part 13; Part 14; Part 15; Part 16; Part 17; Part 18; Part 19; Part 20; Part 21; Part 22; Part 23; Part 24; Part 25; Part 26; Part 27; Part 28; Part 29; Part 30; Part 31; Part 32; Part 33; Part 34; Part 35 ; Part 36.

We step into the recent history with the first elected black president….Barack Obama……all gthe drama that goes with that event……

Most serious historians, especially academics, believe that accounts of recent events—particularly within 10 years of the present—are more journalistic than historical. It is for good reason that journalism has been called the “first draft of history.” As the “American History for Truthdiggers” series nears an end, it looks at the administration of Barack Obama, who left the presidency less than 32 months ago. Because so little time has passed, the essay below is more a brief, analytical essay than a comprehensive reading based on established, long-scrutinized historical sources and discovery of new information. It should be viewed as this author’s first draft of rather recent history. —Danny Sjursen

Barack Hussein Obama. That a man with a black Kenyan father and a name derived from African and Islamic etymology was elected president of the United States seemed profound indeed. America’s legacy of chattel slavery and racial apartheid was such that only a decade and a half before the 2008 election Tupac Shakur would rap that Americans “ain’t ready to see a black president.” Nonetheless, Obama won—with authority—over his Republican opponent, Sen. John McCain of Arizona. By carrying traditionally Republican states such as Virginia, North Carolina and Indiana, Obama appeared to have forged a new Democratic coalition. Perhaps more important was the claim of some of his admirers that he inaugurated a new “post-racial” America. That would turn out to be only wishful thinking.

American History for Truthdiggers: The Obama Disappointment

I admit it I was expecting a lot more out of the Obama presidency….I was very disappointed in his foreign policies……plus I suspect that election of a black man as president is what gave the country a Donald Trump presidency.

We have now been taken into the present by Maj. Sjursen and his next article in the series should be very telling.

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BOOKS!

Before I begin….did I mention that I hate squirrels?

Most of my regulars know that I have a huge library of books on international relations, Politics and History….I just cannot stop buying books….the feel, the smell and the look of a book is everything.

This Saturday I thought I would post a bit on books and a bit of history as well…..

I am not a fan of fiction I prefer real life and real situations….but a couple of first about novels of the past……

So you think 50 Shades was racy?

Researchers have discovered a long-lost version of a medieval romance “novel” containing a sex scene too steamy for even modern publishers. 

The French poem, “Le Roman de la Rose” (The Romance of the Rose), tells the story of a courtier wooing a woman — the poems titular “rose.” It was the “Twilight” of its day, a crowd-pleasing romance that was reproduced again and again. 

“‘Le Roman de la Rose’ really was the blockbuster of its day,” Marianne Ailes, a medievalist at the University of Bristol in the U.K. who identified the new fragments of the manuscript, said in a statement. “We know how popular it was from the number of surviving manuscripts and fragments, a picture our fragment adds to, and from the number of allusions to the text in other medieval writings.”

https://www.livescience.com/lost-medieval-romance-manuscript-discovered.html

Then the discovery of what some say is the very first novel…..

The chest was opened. And suddenly, a chapter has been added to the oldest known version of what’s considered to be the world’s first novel. The original manuscript of the Tale of Genji—telling of the political and romantic life of Genji, the son of an ancient Japanese emperor—was completed around 1010 by a woman named by scholars as Murasaki Shikibu, but subsequently lost to history. Indeed, the oldest written copy known to researchers, transcribed by the poet Teika before his death in 1241, includes just four chapters of the 54-chapter story. Well, now five chapters, counting the 800-year-old pages just discovered in a house in Tokyo, per the Guardian. It seems ancestors of the home owner, descended from a feudal lord, had been quietly keeping Teika’s transcription of the fifth chapter of the Japanese epic since 1743.

In April, 72-year-old Motofuyu Okochi of the Mikawa-Yoshida feudal domain opened the chest used to store the chapter, allowing officials at cultural heritage foundation Reizeike Shiguretei Bunko to have a peek. They say it’s an authentic manuscript, roughly 5.5 inches wide by 8.5 inches long, with handwriting and a blue cover that perfectly matches Teika’s other chapters, which are registered as “national important cultural properties,” per Asahi Shimbun. Kyoto University professor Junko Yamamoto tells the outlet it’s a “very significant” find since research on the fifth chapter, which depicts Genji meeting his future wife, has been based on manuscripts completed 250 years after Teika’s version.

I have about 1500 books in my library….most of them I had to replace after Katrina for many got ruined with water damage……but I read about a new way to protect your books….

“For him that stealeth, or borroweth and returneth not, this book from its owner, let it change into a serpent in his hand & rend him. Let him be struck with palsy & all his members blasted. Let him languish in pain crying aloud for mercy, & let there be no surcease to his agony till he sing in dissolution. Let bookworms gnaw his entrails in token of the Worm that dieth not, & when at last he goeth to his final punishment, let the flames of Hell consume him for ever.”

What can I say after the destruction of Katrina I will try anything to protect my books…..

Have a great Saturday and enjoy family….be well be safe

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16 October 1962

2 days ago…a memory……my bad….all the silliness, the craziness of the last couple of days and I missed posting this bit of history……an important piece of history….

A day us old farts will never forget……ever hear of the Cuban Missile Crisis?

Let us look at the event and the timeline…..

During the Cuban Missile Crisis, leaders of the U.S. and the Soviet Union engaged in a tense, 13-day political and military standoff in October 1962 over the installation of nuclear-armed Soviet missiles on Cuba, just 90 miles from U.S. shores. In a TV address on October 22, 1962, President John Kennedy (1917-63) notified Americans about the presence of the missiles, explained his decision to enact a naval blockade around Cuba and made it clear the U.S. was prepared to use military force if necessary to neutralize this perceived threat to national security. Following this news, many people feared the world was on the brink of nuclear war. However, disaster was avoided when the U.S. agreed to Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev’s (1894-1971) offer to remove the Cuban missiles in exchange for the U.S. promising not to invade Cuba. Kennedy also secretly agreed to remove U.S. missiles from Turkey.

https://www.history.com/topics/cold-war/cuban-missile-crisis

This was a huge deal for about 2 weeks……us older Americans remember just how the situation played out……or did we?

John F. Kennedy and his advisers were stunned to learn that the Soviet Union was, without provocation, installing nuclear-armed medium- and intermediate-range ballistic missiles in Cuba. With these offensive weapons, which represented a new and existential threat to America, Moscow significantly raised the ante in the nuclear rivalry between the superpowers—a gambit that forced the United States and the Soviet Union to the brink of nuclear Armageddon. On October 22, the president, with no other recourse, proclaimed in a televised address that his administration knew of the illegal missiles, and delivered an ultimatum insisting on their removal, announcing an American “quarantine” of Cuba to force compliance with his demands. While carefully avoiding provocative action and coolly calibrating each Soviet countermeasure, Kennedy and his lieutenants brooked no compromise; they held firm, despite Moscow’s efforts to link a resolution to extrinsic issues and despite predictable Soviet blustering about American aggression and violation of international law. In the tense 13‑day crisis, the Americans and Soviets went eyeball-to-eyeball. Thanks to the Kennedy administration’s placid resolve and prudent crisis management—thanks to what Kennedy’s special assistant Arthur Schlesinger Jr. characterized as the president’s “combination of toughness and restraint, of will, nerve, and wisdom, so brilliantly controlled, so matchlessly calibrated, that [it] dazzled the world”—the Soviet leadership the world”—the Soviet leadership blinked: Moscow dismantled the missiles, and a cataclysm was averted.

Almost every word of that statement is FALSE.

https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2013/01/the-real-cuban-missile-crisis/309190/

Just another Cold War situation that could have boiled over into a real life war…….and calmer heads prevailed…..

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