The Outer Space Treaty of 1967

My FYI Weekend continues……

I have been writing a lot about space and the new proposed Space Force….and in all those posts I have referenced the outer Space Treaty of 1967…..and now it has come time to explain the treaty and its functions.

But this subject means very little to most people….my posts are not what one would call popular…..that aside I keep writing and posting because this whole idea will cost billions and the taxpayer will be on the hook for the total.

Let us start with my writings so far…..

https://lobotero.com/2019/04/12/space-law/

https://lobotero.com/2019/08/01/do-laws-apply-in-space/

https://lobotero.com/2019/07/16/space-law-part-2/

In 1967 a UN Outer Space Treaty was signed into reality….and for the most part it has been a success…..but is it a treaty for the 21st century?

Space exploration is governed by a complex series of international treaties and agreements which have been in place for years. The first and probably most important of them celebrates its 50th anniversary on January 27 – The Outer Space Treaty. This treaty, which was signed in 1967, was agreed through the United Nations, and today it remain as the “constitution” of outer space. It has been signed and made official, or ratified, by 105 countries across the world.

The treaty has worked well so far but challenges have increasingly started to crop up. So will it survive another 50 years?

The Outer Space Treaty, like all international law, is technically binding to those countries who sign up to it. But the obvious lack of “space police” means that it cannot be practically enforced. So a country, individual or company could simply ignore it if they so wished. Implications for not complying could include sanctions, but mainly a lack of legitimacy and respect which is of importance in the international arena.

https://theconversation.com/the-outer-space-treaty-has-been-remarkably-successful-but-is-it-fit-for-the-modern-age-71381

Trump’s new Space Command and the proposal for a Space Force could the US violate a long standing treaty and by doing so start yet another war….this time among the stars…..

By directing the Pentagon to create a special “Space Force” as an independent branch of the US military to ensure the safety of US spacecraft and astronauts, US President Donald Trump has sparked concern that Washington would ignite an arms race in outer space.

Since outer space is the common property of humankind, China has always advocated its peaceful use and objected to its weaponisation. It also opposes attempts to turn outer space into a battlefield, and hopes all countries will make joint efforts to keep outer space peaceful.

The United Nations’ Outer Space Treaty, which came into force on October 10, 1967, stipulates that no country should take possession of outer space (including the moon and other celestial bodies) by means of sovereign claims, use or occupation, or by any other means. It also says signatory states must use outer space for peaceful purposes and should not establish military bases or facilities, or test any type of weapons or conduct military exercises in outer space or on celestial bodies.

https://www.nationthailand.com/opinion/30348429

So many questions about our extension into space and so few answers…the Treaty of 1967 was not the only document that deals with space and the handling of events……the Moon Agreement….

The Moon Agreement was considered and elaborated by the Legal Subcommittee from 1972 to 1979. The Agreement was adopted by the General Assembly in 1979 in resolution 34/68. It was not until June 1984, however, that the fifth country, Austria, ratified the Agreement, allowing it to enter into force in July 1984. The Agreement reaffirms and elaborates on many of the provisions of the Outer Space Treaty as applied to the Moon and other celestial bodies, providing that those bodies should be used exclusively for peaceful purposes, that their environments should not be disrupted, that the United Nations should be informed of the location and purpose of any station established on those bodies. In addition, the Agreement provides that the Moon and its natural resources are the common heritage of mankind and that an international regime should be established to govern the exploitation of such resources when such exploitation is about to become feasible.

http://www.unoosa.org/oosa/en/ourwork/spacelaw/treaties/intromoon-agreement.html

Watch a short video that will help explain the “Treaty”……

I spend a lot of time on this subject for space will become more and more important and someone has to use their training to set up parameters….like when a corporation goes to Mars to mine…..they did not sign the Treaty of 1967…..what stops them from raping the planet of resources?

For those that are interested there is a place to go for all the news on Space Policy…….https://spacepolicyonline.com/

I Read, I Wrote, You Know

“Lego Ergo Scribo”

Those Killbots

We all know of the outcome of Skynet taking over, right?

The world is moving more and more close to the day when AI is the warfare norm….until then we have our drones….and the Chinese has taken that concept one step further…..

Chinese military contractors have already started to sell dangerous, autonomous killer robots to customers in the Middle East.

For instance, a Chinese company called Ziyan is actively marketing its Blowfish A3 — an autonomous helicopter-like drone armed with a machine gun — to international buyers, according to Defense One. While several countries have been working towards this tech for years, this news means we’re finally, and unfortunately, living in the era of killer robots.

While Ziyan works to sell its autonomous killbots to Saudi Arabia and Pakistan, the Chinese government is already entrenched in the killer robot trade.

“As we speak, the Chinese government is already exporting some of its most advanced military aerial drones to the Middle East, as it prepares to export its next-generation stealth UAVs when those come online,” said Defense Secretary Mark Esper, per Defense One. “In addition, Chinese weapons manufacturers are selling drones advertised as capable of full autonomy, including the ability to conduct lethal targeted strikes.”

https://futurism.com/the-byte/china-selling-autonomous-killer-drones

We look for ways to make the battlefield ‘safer’ for our troops by using drones…unfortunately the civilians are NO safer….if anything are in more peril.

Thanx to everyone for their kind attention to IST….your visits are much appreciated..

“Lego Ergo Scribo”

The Cloak Of Invisibility

That sound alike a special thing some fantasy hero has to combat the forces of evil……

After a cold week the weekend appears to be warmer and sunny….but we will see…..

What a coup that would be….if someone figures out how to make things invisible…..especially on the battlefield….

Canada’s Hyperstealth Biotechnology already manufactures camouflage uniforms for militaries across the globe.

But now, the company has patented a new “Quantum Stealth” material that disguises a military’s soldiers — or even its tanks, aircraft, and ships — by making anything behind it seem invisible.

Earlier in October, Hyperstealth filed a patent for the material, which doesn’t require a power source and is both paper-thin and inexpensive — all traits that could make it appealing for use on the battlefield.

According to a press release, it works by bending the light around a target to make it seemingly disappear. This light can be in the visible spectrum, or it can be ultraviolet, infrared, or shortwave infrared light, making the material what Hyperstealth calls a “broadband invisibility cloak.”

https://futurism.com/the-byte/watch-invisibility-cloak-military-use

It Is Destroying All Our Books

The weekend and I get to wax poetic…or intellectual….or comedic…..or…well you get the idea….

I have written before just how important books are to me and that I have at least a 1000 books in my library and not one is a book of fiction.

My love of books came from my childhood…..I was brought in a home with a absent father and a mother that had to work to make ends meet….so I was given toys but mostly books that expanded my mind….this lead me to question so much…..and in later life thank my Mom for her insistence that I read and ask questions……

I read something that distressed me….that my books may be suffering from what is know as the literary “slow fire”……

Sometimes you need to be brutal, eschewing sentimentality as you cut off a spine or replace a book’s old, water-stained cover. At other times, gentle, delicate—especially with the books from Special Collections, those unique, fragile (and expensive) texts. And sometimes you find books with yellowed, stiff pages. The old dog-eared folds break off in triangles, flutter to the floor. These books can’t be helped by simple repairs—they’re acidified, dying, and the opposite of unique. In fact, they’re examples of a large-scale catastrophe that’s been quietly building in libraries for decades.

It’s called a “slow fire,” this continuous acidification and subsequent embrittlement of paper that was created with the seeds of its own ruin in its very fibers. In a 1987 documentary on the subject, the deputy Librarian of Congress William Welsh takes an embrittled, acid-burned book and begins tearing pages out by the handful, crumbling them into shards with an ease reminiscent of stepping on a dried-up insect carcass.

The Little-Known ‘Slow Fire’ That’s Destroying All Our Books

I believe the slogan…”Reading Is Essential”……

Be Smart!

Learn Stuff!

I Read, I Wrote, You Know

“Lego Ergo Scribo”

Moving On Up…To The Stars

AS usual I will be posting on the developments with our search for a new home after we blow this one up…..

First, most people interested in planetary exploration knows what is meant by the “Goldilocks Zone”……if you are not one of them then Google is just a click away (look it up)……

But does this “Zone” mean we should think it is a good spot for us humans?

“Any type of planet can orbit in the habitable zone,” but only such Earthlike planets are likely to have liquid water on their surfaces, says astrophysicist Elizabeth Tasker of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. “We all secretly know this, as both the moon and Mars orbit within the habitable zone, but neither have lakeside retreats.”

Why just being in the habitable zone doesn’t make exoplanets livable

Without a proper mode of transportation we humans are stuck on this planet…regardless what we do to destroy it…..why?

Humans will never migrate to a planet outside of Earth’s solar system because it would take far too long to get there, Swiss Nobel laureate Michel Mayor said

Mayor and his colleague Didier Queloz were on Tuesday awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics for their research refining techniques to detect so-called exoplanets.

“If we are talking about exoplanets, things should be clear: we will not migrate there,” Mayor told AFP near Madrid on the sidelines of a conference when asked about the possibility of humans moving to other planets.

“These planets are much, much too far away. Even in the very optimistic case of a livable planet that is not too far, say a few dozen light years, which is not a lot, it’s in the neighbourhood, the time to go there is considerable,” he added.

https://phys.org/news/2019-10-humans-migrate-planets-nobel-winner.html  Or  https://thenextweb.com/insider/2019/10/11/why-migrating-to-another-planet-is-a-stupid-and-implausible-idea/

Beyond our chances of migrating to a new home…..we have other space news…..like researchers have found large structures at the center of our galaxy….

There’s something really, really big in the middle of our Milky Way galaxy — one of the largest structures ever observed in the region, in fact. An enormous pair of bubbles in an hourglass-like arrangement is sending out radio emissions hundreds of light-years beyond our galaxy. Scientists aren’t sure how it formed, but its existence will likely teach us more about the supermassive black hole lurking in the center of the Milky Way.

https://curiosity.com/topics/scientists-have-discovered-enormous-balloon-like-structures-in-the-center-of-our-galaxy-curiosity/

Then a researcher for SETI has made an interesting claim…..

A physicist who’s on the hunt for extraterrestrial life says there’s a chance that an ancient alien civilization has been spying on Earth for millions of years.

That’s not to say that he’s suggesting they walk among us, but physicist and independent SETI researcher James Benford suggests that aliens could have visited a rock orbiting the Sun in a path similar to that or Earth, according to Live Science. While such an extraterrestrial visit is extremely unlikely, it’s technically within the realm of possibility that alien tech is sitting on one of those so-called co-orbitals, waiting to be uncovered.

https://futurism.com/the-byte/seti-aliens-spy-orbiting-sun

Speaking of SETI….after all these years of trying why have we not made contact as of yet?

Didier Queloz, a physicist from the University of Cambridge, was named a co-winner of the Nobel prize in physics on Tuesday for his discovery of the first exoplanet orbiting a sun-like star.

Queloz, who calls himself a “planet hunter,” said following the award ceremony that his work has led him to become “absolutely convinced” that humans will detect alien life in the next 100 years.

“I can’t believe we are the only living entity in the whole universe. There’s just way too many planets, way too may stars … the chemistry that led to life has to happen elsewhere,” Queloz in a talk at the Science Media Center in London on Tuesday.

https://www.businessinsider.com/why-no-contact-with-aliens-2019-9

Now speaking of finding life…..did we find it on Mars in the 70s?

Nasa found evidence of alien life in the 1970s, according to a former senior scientist – and ignored it.

The Viking landers were sent to the Martian surface more than 40 years ago, with the aim of exploring the planet. They included an experiment known as Labeled Release, or LR, which was intended to look for signs of life on the planet.

The results came back in 1976 – and seemed to indicate that something was happening on the surface. Gilbert V Levin – an engineer and inventor who was the principal investigator on the experiment – has now written a long article arguing that those findings were indications of life on Mars, which were ignored by Nasa.

https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgets-and-tech/news/nasa-alien-life-proof-mars-space-viking-lr-a9156001.html

Finally, I mentioned Mars and the rover has discovered something kinda amazing……an ancient oasis….

NASA scientists believe Mars may have had an oasis environment around 3.5 billion years ago, they said Monday. Evidence of ponds scattered across a 100-mile-wide basin called the Gale Crater was found by the Curiosity rover, which discovered mineral salts mixed with sediment in rocks.

Curiosity is currently exploring each layer of the Gale Crater and Mount Sharp to uncover the history of Mars, which scientists think may have gone from an underwater landscape with deep lakes to an oasis-style series of shallow ponds.

“Streams might have laced the crater’s walls,” NASA said Monday, adding “climate fluctuations” changed the environment from wet to desert. Curiosity had previously found evidence of freshwater lakes on Mars, too.

https://www.cnet.com/news/nasa-mars-curiosity-rover-finds-an-ancient-oasis/

My tour of Space News is at an end…..I read and write so you do not have to…..you are welcome.

For your musical enjoyment…..

I Read, I Wrote, You Know

“Lego Ergo Scribo”

Up, Up And Away!

Finally!  Some much needed rain and cooler temps…..and those damn squirrels are eating up my satsuma crop…….

The weekend and I would like to talk about space, a subject that I frequently post……..

Soon we will be going to the stars….not in my life time but soon…..but how will we fuel the ship that takes us to the next world we will screw up?

Will we use some sort of FTL (Faster Than Light) propulsion?  Or maybe solar winds?  How about  a nuke powered space craft?  Then there is the old reliable the “wrap drive”……

First will FTL mean time travel as well?

Time-traveling through space might still sound like a common plot in sci-fi movies today but now some scientists actually believe that the theory is very possible in real life. 

According to a report, a wormhole could make space traveling to very distant regions of the universe happen in an instant. This theory discussing how the anomalies of physics could make time traveling real was recently discussed in a scientific paper authored by physicists from Princeton University. 

The study titled “Traversable wormholes in four dimensions,” discussed how physicists Juan Maldacena, Alexey Milekhin and Fedor Popov have “constructed a traversable wormhole solution in four dimensions.” 

https://www.ibtimes.com/time-traveling-possible-scientists-discover-how-move-through-space-seconds-2837116

How close are we to FTL?

New Scientist is reporting that NASA engineer David Burns is making some bold claims about a conceptual new spaceship thruster he calls the “helical engine” — a concept the magazine admits “may violate the laws of physics.”

“The engine itself would be able to get to 99 per cent the speed of light if you had enough time and power,” Burns told New Scientist.

https://futurism.com/the-byte/nasa-thruster-99-speed-light

A page out of a Star Trek script…..wrap drive……

It’s hard living in a relativistic Universe, where even the nearest stars are so far away and the speed of light is absolute. It is little wonder then why science fiction franchises routinely employ FTL (Faster-than-Light) as a plot device.

Push a button, press a petal, and that fancy drive system – whose workings no one can explain – will send us to another location in space-time.

However, in recent years, the scientific community has become understandably excited and skeptical about claims that a particular concept – the Alcubierre Warp Drive – might actually be feasible.

This was the subject of a presentation made at this year’s American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Propulsion and Energy Forum, which took place from August 19th to 22nd in Indianapolis.

https://www.sciencealert.com/how-feasible-is-a-warp-drive-here-s-the-science

How about those solar winds we hear about…..if it can power a satellite then why not a space craft?

LightSail 2, The Planetary Society’s solar sailing spacecraft, has spent more than two months in orbit.

During that time, the bread-box-sized spacecraft deployed a set of silver Mylar sails and began to climb, proving that the small satellite can raise its orbit without a drop of conventional fuel. Propelled solely by the power of the sun, the spacecraft has shown that solar sailing may be a viable means of propulsion. 

With LightSail 2’s primary mission complete, the rest of the spacecraft’s time in orbit — about a year, all told — provides a great chance for folks around the world to glimpse the spacecraft for themselves. According to Bill Nye “The Science Guy” and his team at The Planetary Society, skywatchers around the world can spot the spacecraft as it glides above Earth — if the conditions are just right. 

https://www.space.com/how-to-see-lightsail-2-skywatching.html

That leaves the possibility of using a nuke to power a space craft……

The War Zone has been reporting on a set of bizarre patents assigned to the U.S. Navy that describe radical new technologies that could absolutely revolutionize the aerospace field, and frankly, the very way we live our lives. These include high-energy electromagnetic fields used to create force fields and outlandish new methods of aerospace propulsion and vehicle design that basically read as UFO-like technology. You can learn all about these patents, their viability, and the issues surrounding them in these exclusive features of ours. Now, the same mysterious Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division engineer behind those patents has produced another patent—one for a compact fusion reactor that could pump out absolutely incredible amounts of power in a small space—maybe even in a craft. 

https://www.thedrive.com/the-war-zone/30256/scientist-behind-the-navys-ufo-patents-has-now-filed-one-for-a-compact-fusion-reactor

How will we get from Earth to some a waiting craft?

How about an elevator?

A growing number of scientists and space-technology enthusiasts are looking into ways to construct a huge elevator, either on Earth or the moon, that could transport cargo to and from space.

In a study published in September, which has not been peer-reviewed, two graduate students proposed a version of a space elevator that would stretch from the moon to Earth’s satellite-level orbit. They said the structure could be built with current technology.

https://www.businessinsider.com/space-elevator-on-earth-moon-2019-9

We left out “worm holes” and “Ion Drives”……

But now you have an idea/s of how this will work……

I Read, I Wrote, You Know

“Lego Ergo Scribo”

Space Sunday

It is that time again…..time for me to bring my readers up to date on the happenings in space and our soon to be active, Space Force.

Most people could care less but I grew up with Buck Rogers, Rocky Jackson, Flash Gordon, etc……so I like space stuff and after all it is my blog so guess what?  Space News!

Lots of stuff to report…..us space nerds are on the job……

Lots of talk about settlers for the Moon……

It’s the year 3000. Having used up all of Earth’s natural resources, humans have become a spacefaring race and established colonies on the moon. Vast, sealed domes cluster across its surface, housing cities populated by hundreds of thousands of people. This cold, gray rock has somehow become humanity’s new home.

Of course, this is pure science fiction. But no vision of the future is complete without an extraterrestrial colony of humans, and since the moon is the closest celestial body to our planet, it’s the easiest to imagine as our futuristic home.

But does this vision align with reality? Will the moon one day be a hot property, and if so, how many people could its unwelcoming landscape realistically support?

https://www.livescience.com/how-many-humans-could-live-moon.html

Then those settlers will reach out to Mars……where will they call home?

The smaller of Mars’ two moons, Deimos, was named after the Greek god of terror — but the way former NASA flight surgeon Jim Logan sees it, Deimos could be a comfort zone for space settlers.

“The Mars-facing side of Deimos is probably the most valuable real estate in the solar system,” Logan, co-founder of the Space Enterprise Institute, said today at Seattle’s Museum of Flight.

Logan laid out his case for Deimos during a conference on space settlement, presented this week by the Space Studies Institute to highlight the late Princeton physicist Gerard O’Neill’s vision for humanity’s expansion into the solar system.

https://www.geekwire.com/2019/safest-bet-space-settlers-believe-inside-mars-moon-deimos/

Will we ever find life on Mars?

Nasa is close to finding life on Mars but the world is not ready for the “revolutionary” implications of the discovery, the space agency’s chief scientist has said.

Dr Jim Green has warned that two rovers from Nasa and the European Space Agency (ESA) could find evidence of life within months of arriving on Mars in March 2021.

The ExoMars Rover, which has been dubbed “Rosalind” in memory of British chemist Rosalind Franklin, will search for extra-terrestrial life by drilling 6.5 feet down into Mars’ core to take samples.

https://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/nasa-mars-life-discovery-space-exomars-rover-chief-scientist-jim-green-a9125076.html

Stay on the topic of Mars……what if “life” is found by the rovers now crawling their way across the planet?

Chief scientist at NASA Jim Green believes we’re just years away from finding life on Mars — thanks to the agency’s Mars rover and the European Space Agency’s ExoMars Rover, both scheduled to launch in 2020.

If the missions find life, Green is terrified of the implications.

“It will start a whole new line of thinking,” he told The Telegraph. “I don’t think we’re prepared for the results. I’ve been worried about that because I think we’re close to finding it and making some announcements.”

https://futurism.com/the-byte/nasa-scientist-find-life-mars

What about the other neighbor that we do not talk about much….Venus?

It seems that Venus once had a stable environment for awhile…

Venus likely maintained stable temperatures and hosted liquid water for billions of years before an event triggered drastic changes in the planet, according to a new study.

Now, Venus is a mostly dead planet with a toxic atmosphere 90 times thicker than ours and surface temperatures that reach 864 degrees, hot enough to melt lead. It’s often called Earth’s twin because the planets are similar in size. But the modern comparisons stop there.
However, a recent study compared five climate simulations of Venus’ past and every scenario suggested that the planet could support liquid water and a temperate climate on its surface for at least three billion years. Like the other planets in our solar system, Venus formed 4.5 billion years ago.
 
Life and water on Saturn’s moon, Enceladus…….

Scientists just found the most basic ingredients for life bursting from an ocean on Saturn’s moon Enceladus.

A new analysis of NASA data reveals the presence of organic compounds in the plumes of liquid water that shoot into space from the ocean below Enceladus’s icy crust.

These compounds, which carry nitrogen and oxygen, play a key role in producing amino acids ⁠- complex molecules that serve as the building blocks of proteins. Without proteins, life as we know it on Earth couldn’t exist.

Scientists have long suspected that the ocean below Enceladus’s surface could harbour the ingredients for life. Researchers had detected other organic molecules coming from the icy moon before, but this is the first time anyone has detected them dissolved in the water.

That’s critical, since it means the compounds could undergo deep-sea chemical reactions that produce amino acids.

My Sunday Space Report……

I Read, I Wrote and now You Know!

“Lego Ergo Scribo”